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4 The twentieth century opened with only one widely available modern medicine: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). In the 1940s the first antibiotic, the first mass produced antimalarial, and the first antitubercular were introduced. The 1950s and 1960s saw the rapid introduction of oral contraceptives, medicines for diabetes, and then medicines for mental(More)
The pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides decrease food intake possibly via MC4 receptor. In this study we compared the effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), beta-MSH and gamma(1)-MSH (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 microg, i.c.v.) on food intake. alpha-MSH and beta-MSH inhibited spontaneous food intake in a dose dependent manner, whereas the(More)
The effects of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) on respiratory resistance were studied in 14 healthy volunteers by the registration of slow vital capacity and flow volume loop during forced respiration test. The administration of CCK-4 (50 micrograms) was performed in a double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Injections of CCK-4 induced prominent(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY, 1 and 10 pmol), NPY Y1 receptor agonist [Leu31, Pro34]NPY (10 pmol) and Y2 agonist NPY13-36 (100 pmol) were administered unilaterally into the region of the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) in rats. NPY (10 pmol) and NPY13-36 increased the percentage of open arm entries, the percentage of time spent on open part, number of both open and(More)
The effect of the novel non-peptide neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226, N2-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-methyl]-D-arginine amide, on exploratory behaviour of rats in the elevated plus-maze was studied. BIBP3226 (0.5 and 5 micrograms, i.c.v.) induced an anxiogenic-like effect at the higher dose tested. This effect was antagonised by(More)
The changes in the extracellular concentration of endogenous noradrenaline and dopamine in the frontal cortex following pretreatment with noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 [N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine] were studied by in vivo microdialysis in rats anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Noradrenaline and dopamine levels in frontal cortex were(More)
We reported previously that the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor antagonist, N2-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxy-phenyl)methyl]-D-arginine amide (BIBP3226) has an anxiogenic-like effect in the elevated plus maze test in rats. In this study we investigated the effect of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, alpha-helical-CRF(9-41)(More)
We have reported previously that the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226 applied into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has an anxiogenic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. In the present study the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor antagonists BIBP3226 (500 pmol) and 1229U91 (formerly also GR231118, GW1229 and EXBP68,(More)
In an elevated plus-maze model of anxiety mice treated with the benzodiazepine inverse agonist DMCM (0.5-1.5 mg/kg i.p.) spent significantly less time on the open arms and showed the decreased number of open arm entries. The opposite i.e. increased time spent on the open arms and the higher number of open arm entries was registered after diazepam (1.5(More)
Exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) administered intracerebroventricularly or into the central nucleus of amygdala has anxiolytic-like effects in animal models of anxiety. These effects are probably mediated by the NPY Y1 receptor. The role of the NPY Y1 receptor activation by endogenous NPY in this and other brain areas has not been fully elucidated. The(More)