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In vitro synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles has been reconstituted with washed membranes and three soluble proteins (Sar1p, Sec13p complex, and Sec23p complex). Vesicle formation requires GTP but can be driven by nonhydrolyzable analogs such as GMP-PNP. However, GMP-PNP vesicles fail to target and fuse with the Golgi complex(More)
Addition of brefeldin A (BFA) to most cells results in both the formation of extensive, uncoated membrane tubules through which Golgi components redistribute into the ER and the failure to transport molecules out of this mixed ER/Golgi system. In this study we provide evidence that suggests BFA's effects are not limited to the Golgi apparatus but are(More)
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is an abundant and highly conserved low molecular weight GTP-binding protein that was originally identified as a key element required for the action of cholera toxin in mammalian cells, but whose physiological role is unknown. We report that ARF family proteins are highly concentrated in non-clathrin-coated transport vesicles(More)
An N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive transport component (NSF) has been purified on the basis of its ability to support transport between Golgi cisternae. We now report that NSF is needed for membrane fusion. Thus, when NSF is withheld from incubations of Golgi stacks with cytosol and ATP, uncoated transport vesicles accumulate. Biochemical experiments confirm(More)
The cytosolic yeast proteins Sec13p-Sec31p, Sec23p-Sec24p, and the small GTP-binding protein Sar1p generate protein transport vesicles by forming the membrane coat termed COPII. We demonstrate by thin section and immunoelectron microscopy that purified COPII components form transport vesicles directly from the outer membrane of isolated yeast nuclei.(More)
Budding of COP-coated vesicles (the likely carriers of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi stack) from Golgi cisternae requires ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), coatomer proteins from the cytosol, GTP, and fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The assembly of coated buds on the membranes requires coatomer, ARF, and GTP. When(More)
Formation of non-clathrin-coated vesicles requires the recruitment of several cytosolic factors to the Golgi membrane. To identify membrane proteins involved in this budding process, a highly abundant type I transmembrane protein (p23) was isolated from mammalian Golgi-derived COPI-coated vesicles, and its cDNA was cloned and sequenced. It belongs to the(More)
GTP gamma S irreversibly inhibits protein transport between successive compartments of the Golgi stack in a cell-free system. Fluoride, potentiated by the addition of aluminum ion, also causes a strong inhibition. These are hallmarks of the involvement of a guanine nucleotide-binding or regulatory "G" protein. Inhibition by GTP gamma S requires a cytosolic(More)