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Over half a million women die each year from pregnancy related causes, 99% in low and middle income countries. In many low income countries, complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death amongst women of reproductive years. The Millennium Development Goals have placed maternal health at the core of the struggle against poverty and(More)
BACKGROUND Calcium supplementation may prevent high blood pressure through a number of mechanisms and may help to prevent preterm labour. OBJECTIVES The objective of this review was to assess the effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related maternal and child adverse outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY We(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal timing for clamping the umbilical cord at preterm birth is unclear. Early clamping allows for immediate transfer of the infant to the neonatologist. Delaying clamping allows blood flow between the placenta, the umbilical cord and the baby to continue. The blood which transfers to the baby between birth and cord clamping is called(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is associated with deficient intravascular production of prostacyclin, a vasodilator, and excessive production of thromboxane, a vasoconstrictor and stimulant of platelet aggregation. These observations led to the hypotheses that antiplatelet agents, low-dose aspirin in particular, might prevent or delay development of(More)
BACKGROUND Anticonvulsants are used for pre-eclampsia in the belief they prevent eclamptic convulsions, and so improve outcome. Evidence supported magnesium sulphate as the drug to evaluate. METHODS Eligible women (n=10141) had not given birth or were 24 h or less postpartum; blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or more, and proteinuria of 1+ (30 mg/dL) or(More)
BACKGROUND Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure (fit) in association with pre-eclampsia, is rare but potentially life-threatening. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate, and other anticonvulsants, for prevention of(More)
BACKGROUND Mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy is common. Antihypertensive drugs are often used in the belief that lowering blood pressure will prevent progression to more severe disease, and thereby improve outcome. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of antihypertensive drug treatments for women with mild to moderate hypertension during(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of mortality and morbidity during pregnancy and childbirth. Antiplatelet agents, especially low-dose aspirin, might prevent or delay pre-eclampsia, and thereby improve outcome. Our aim was to assess the use of antiplatelet agents for the primary prevention of pre-eclampsia, and to explore which women are likely to(More)
BACKGROUND The number of visits for antenatal (prenatal) care developed without evidence of how many visits are necessary. The content of each visit also needs evaluation. OBJECTIVES To compare the effects of antenatal care programmes with reduced visits for low-risk women with standard care. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and(More)
BACKGROUND Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain "raw" data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a "two-stage" approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of "one-stage" approaches which combine all individual(More)