Leland Barnard

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[1] The recent decline in the open magnetic flux of the Sun heralds the end of the Grand Solar Maximum (GSM) that has persisted throughout the space age, during which the largest‐fluence Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events have been rare and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) fluxes have been relatively low. In the absence of a predictive model of the solar(More)
Galileo's photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument mapped Io's thermal emission during the I24, I25, and I27 flybys with a spatial resolution of 2.2 to 300 kilometers. Mapping of Loki in I24 shows uniform temperatures for most of Loki Patera and high temperatures in the southwest corner, probably resulting from an eruption that began 1 month before the(More)
[1] The recent low and prolonged minimum of the solar cycle, along with the slow growth in activity of the new cycle, has led to suggestions that the Sun is entering a Grand Solar Minimum (GSMi), potentially as deep as the Maunder Minimum (MM). This raises questions about the persistence and predictability of solar activity. We study the autocorrelation(More)
We present a new reconstruction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, B) for 1846–2012 with a full analysis of errors, based on the homogeneously constructed IDV(1d) composite of geomagnetic activity presented in Part 1 (Lockwood et al., 2013a). Analysis of the dependence of the commonly used geomagnetic indices on solar wind parameters is presented(More)
Svalgaard (2014) has recently pointed out that the calibration of the Helsinki magnetic observatory’sH component variometer was probably in error in published data for the years 1866–1874.5 and that this makes the interdiurnal variation index based on daily means, IDV(1d), (Lockwood et al., 2013a), and the interplanetary magnetic field strength derived from(More)
We analyze the widely used international/Zürich sunspot number record, R, with a view to quantifying a suspected calibration discontinuity around 1945 (which has been termed the “Waldmeier discontinuity”). We compare R against the composite sunspot group data from the Royal Greenwich Observatory network and the Solar Optical Observing Network, using both(More)
We investigate the relationship between interdiurnal variation geomagnetic activity indices, IDV and IDV(1d), corrected sunspot number, RC , and the group sunspot number RG . RC uses corrections for both the “Waldmeier discontinuity,” as derived in Paper 1, and the “Wolf discontinuity” revealed by Leussu et al. (2013). We show that the simple correlation of(More)
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