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Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance and astrocyte function, the phenomenon remains unexplained. Here we(More)
Exposed to a sufficiently high extracellular potassium concentration ([K + ]o), the neuron can fire spontaneous discharges or even become inactivated due to membrane depolarisation (‘depolarisation block’). Since these phenomena likely are related to the maintenance and propagation of seizure discharges, it is of considerable importance to understand the(More)
BACKGROUND Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary(More)
BACKGROUND The pigment melanin is produced by specialized cells, called melanocytes. In healthy skin, melanocytes are sparsely spread among the other cell types in the basal layer of the epidermis. Sun tanning results from an UV-induced increase in the release of melanin to neighbouring keratinocytes, the major cell type component of the epidermis as well(More)
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