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Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance and astrocyte function, the phenomenon remains unexplained. Here we(More)
Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary(More)
Exposed to a sufficiently high extracellular potassium concentration ([K + ]o), the neuron can fire spontaneous discharges or even become inactivated due to membrane depolarisation (‘depolarisation block’). Since these phenomena likely are related to the maintenance and propagation of seizure discharges, it is of considerable importance to understand the(More)
The pigment melanin is produced by specialized cells, called melanocytes. In healthy skin, melanocytes are sparsely spread among the other cell types in the basal layer of the epidermis. Sun tanning results from an UV-induced increase in the release of melanin to neighbouring keratinocytes, the major cell type component of the epidermis as well as(More)
Melanin produced in follicular melanocytes is the major basis for pigmentation of hair and wool in mammals. Two major types of melanin may be synthesized, the black/brown eumelanin and the reddish/yellow pheomelanin. Based on available cell biological evidence and reasonable assumptions, a mathematical model is developed to improve our understanding of(More)
With the increasing flow of biological data there is a growing demand for mathematical tools whereby essential aspects of complex causal dynamic models can be captured and detected by simpler mathematical models without sacrificing too much of the realism provided by the original ones. Given the presence of a time scale hierarchy, singular perturbation(More)
A stochastic model of cancer initiation is considered. The model is used to evaluate whether a bystander effect may be important in the pre-malignant and malignant stages of carcinogenesis, and furthermore, on the basis of epidemiological data, to estimate the mutation rates of genes involved in the development of oral leukoplakias. The bystander effect is(More)
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