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Beginning with a case report of nitrous oxide (N₂O)-induced B₁₂ deficiency myelopathy, this article reviews the clinical biochemistry of vitamin B₁₂, and examines the pathogenetic mechanisms by which B₁₂ deficiency leads to neurologic damage, and how this damage is potentiated by N₂O exposure. The article systematically examines the available experimental(More)
  • Leith Hathout
  • 2012
This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole.In Bahrain, physicians have recently(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary CNS neoplasm, and continues to have a dismal prognosis. A widely-used approach to the mathematical modeling of GBM involves utilizing a reaction-diffusion model of cell density as a function of space and time, which accounts for both the infiltrative nature of the tumor using a diffusion term, and the(More)
BACKGROUND Contrast-enhancing low-grade diffuse astrocytomas are an understudied, aggressive subtype at increased risk because of few radiographic indications of malignant transformation. In the current study, we tested whether tumor growth kinetics could identify tumors that undergo malignant transformation to higher grades. METHODS Thirty patients with(More)
¾Material handling robots are routinely used for transferring parts in an interconnected multi-machine cell. The sequence of robot movements between machines is arrived at by the operator, either intuitively or by the use of some form of off-line analysis. It would be extremely beneficial if robots can be provided with additional intelligence to(More)
Mathematical modeling and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used to calculate patient-specific rates of tumor diffusion, D, and proliferation, ρ, can be combined to simulate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) growth. We showed that the proportion and distribution of tumor cells below the MRI threshold are determined by the D/ρ ratio of the tumor. As most(More)
The heterogeneity of response to treatment in patients with glioblastoma multiforme suggests that the optimal therapeutic approach incorporates an individualized assessment of expected lesion progression. In this work, we develop a novel computational model for the proliferation and necrosis of glioblastoma multiforme. The model parameters are selected(More)
Standard therapy for glioblastoma (GBM) includes maximal surgical resection and radiation therapy. While it is established that radiation therapy provides the greatest survival benefit of standard treatment modalities, the impact of the extent of surgical resection (EOR) on patient outcome remains highly controversial. While some studies describe no(More)
Although vascular tortuosity is a ubiquitous phenomenon, almost no mathematical models exist to describe its shape. Given that the shape of tortuous vessel curves seems fairly uniform across orders of magnitude of vessel size and across vast differences in anatomic substrata, it is hypothesized that the shape of tortuosity is not purely random but rather is(More)
Advanced liver disease has long been associated with cerebral abnormalities. These abnormalities, termed acquired hepatocerebral degeneration, are typically visualized as T1 weighted hyperintensity on MRI in the deep gray matter of the basal ganglia. Recent reports, however, have demonstrated that a subset of patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease(More)