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Comprehensive characterization of the acute and chronic toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam to a suite of aquatic primary producers, invertebrates, and fish.
TLDR
Overall, based on acute toxicity endpoints, the potential acute risk to freshwater organisms was found to be minimal and 5% hazard concentrations for acute data (freshwater invertebrates), and compared these with measured concentrations from relevant North American surface waters were comparable to that of freshwater species. Expand
Atrazine does not affect algal biomass or snail populations in microcosm communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.
TLDR
Comparison of these results with previous findings highlights the variability of responses to atrazine exposure between similarly constructed freshwater communities, even at concentrations up to 20 times higher than sustained environmental levels. Expand
Influence of light, nutrients, and temperature on the toxicity of atrazine to the algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata: Implications for the risk assessment of herbicides.
TLDR
Variation in toxicity of the herbicide atrazine to a representative green algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata with changes in light intensity, water temperature, concentrations of nutrients or combinations of these three parameters was examined. Expand
Response of the green alga Oophila sp., a salamander endosymbiont, to a PSII-inhibitor under laboratory conditions.
In a rare example of autotroph-vertebrate endosymbiosis, eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are colonized by a green alga (Oophila sp.) that significantly enhances salamanderExpand
Optimization of culturing conditions for toxicity testing with the alga Oophila sp. (Chlorophyceae), an amphibian endosymbiont.
TLDR
Overall, the present study shows that screening for direct effects of contaminants on the algal symbiont without the presence of the host salamander is possible under certain laboratory conditions. Expand
Sensitivity of a green alga to atrazine is not enhanced by previous acute exposure.
TLDR
Algal recovery was rapid and prior pulsed exposure to atrazine did not significantly affect subsequent sensitivity (EC10s, EC25s) for any endpoint, indicating no changes in tolerance at the population level for this species. Expand
Response of the mayfly (Cloeon dipterum) to chronic exposure to thiamethoxam in outdoor mesocosms.
TLDR
Findings support a 35-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.3 µg thiamethoxam/L for mayflies (C. dipterum) under chronic conditions, and indicate that populations of C. Dipterum and similarly sensitive aquatic insects are unlikely to be significantly impacted by thiamETHoxam exposure in natural systems represented by the conditions in the study. Expand
Interactions between atrazine and phosphorus in aquatic systems: effects on phytoplankton and periphyton.
TLDR
Results indicate that the indirect impacts of atrazine on total growth of periphyton and likely, subsequent effects on aquatic snails, are not expected to be ecologically significant at the concentrations ofatrazine tested and over a range of nutrient conditions commonly occurring in agroecosystems. Expand
Effects of atrazine on egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and its endosymbiotic alga (Oophila amblystomatis).
TLDR
Development of A. maculatum embryos was not affected by exposure to atrazine at concentrations and durations exceeding those found in the environment, and growth inhibition values in the 96-h growth inhibition test were generally greater than those reported for standard algal test species. Expand
A freshwater mesocosm study into the effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam at multiple trophic levels.
TLDR
Overall, based on current concentrations of thiamethoxam detected in North American surface waters, there is low likelihood of direct or indirect effects from a pulsed exposure on primary producers, zooplankton, and macroinvertebrates, including insects, as monitored in this study. Expand
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