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Strains of the cyanobacterial genus Calothrix display pronounced tapering filaments. These cyanobacteria are benthic, have a worldwide distribution and are among the most easily recognizable cyanobacterial genera. However, it is not clear whether cyanobacterial strains assigned to the genus Calothrix constitute a natural monophyletic group. We sequenced 16S(More)
The genus Yersinia has been used as a model system to study pathogen evolution. Using whole-genome sequencing of all Yersinia species, we delineate the gene complement of the whole genus and define patterns of virulence evolution. Multiple distinct ecological specializations appear to have split pathogenic strains from environmental, nonpathogenic lineages.(More)
In this article we summarize the current knowledge of Baltic Sea cyanobacteria, focusing on diversity, toxicity, and nitrogen fixation in the filamentous heterocystous taxa. We also review the recent results of our microbial diversity studies in planktonic and benthic habitats in the Baltic Sea. Based on molecular analyses, we have improved the(More)
Y. enterocolitica biotype (BT) 1A strains are often isolated from human clinical samples but their contribution to disease has remained a controversial topic. Variation and the population structure among the clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates have been poorly characterized. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR for(More)
Late summer cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea contain Anabaena sp. together with Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Although Anabaena is common especially in the Gulf of Finland, very little is known about its genetic diversity. Here we undertook a molecular phylogenetic study of 68 Anabaena strains isolated from the brackish Gulf of(More)
A practically important phenomenon, resulting in the loss of the original flagellar phenotype (genotype) of bacteria, is described in the Escherichia coli H17 type strain P12b possessing two distinct genes for H17 and H4 flagellins, respectively. By PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic investigation, the H17 gene (originally expressed) was considered a new(More)
Benthic cyanobacteria from aquatic environments have been reported to produce biologically active metabolites. However, the toxicity and other biological activities of benthic cyanobacteria from the Baltic Sea are not well known. We determined the biological activities of 21 Anabaena, Calothrix, Nodularia, Nostoc, and Phormidium strains isolated from(More)
We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex(More)
One chromosomal virulence marker of Yersinia is the gene ail, which encodes Ail, an outer membrane protein that promotes attachment and invasion. A high correlation has been found between the ail gene and the virulence of Yersinia. Here, we report two Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains that are usually nonpathogenic and carry the ail gene. The ail(More)
This study investigated the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) bio/serotypes and YE-like species in clinical stool specimens. The special aim was to find the best methods for accurate identification of YE species and, further, pathogenic strains among YE isolates. Of the 41,848 specimens cultured in ten laboratories during a 12-month period, 473(More)