Leighton T. Izu

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We present a model that provides a unified framework for studying Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves in cardiac cells. The model is novel in combining 1) use of large currents (approximately 20 pA) through the Ca2+ release units (CRUs) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); 2) stochastic Ca2+ release (or firing) of CRUs; 3) discrete, asymmetric distribution of CRUs(More)
Spontaneously generated calcium (Ca2+) waves can trigger arrhythmias in ventricular and atrial myocytes. Yet, Ca2+ waves also serve the physiological function of mediating global Ca2+ increase and muscle contraction in atrial myocytes. We examine the factors that influence Ca2+ wave initiation by mathematical modeling and large-scale computational(More)
Previous models of cardiac Ca2+ sparks have assumed that Ca2+ currents through the Ca2+ release units (CRUs) were approximately 1-2 pA, producing sparks with peak fluorescence ratio (F/F(0)) of approximately 2.0 and a full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1 microm. Here, we present actual Ca2+ sparks with peak F/F(0) of >6 and a FWHM of(More)
The clustering of ryanodine receptors (RyR2) into functional Ca2+ release units is central to current models for cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Using immunolabeling and confocal microscopy, we have analyzed the distribution of RyR2 clusters in rat and ventricular atrial myocytes. The resolution of the three-dimensional structure was improved(More)
A difficulty of using confocal microscopy to study Ca2+ sparks is the uncertainty of the linescan position with respect to the source of Ca2+ release. Random placement of the linescan is expected to result in a broad distribution of measured Ca2+ spark amplitudes (a) even if all Ca2+ sparks were generated identically. Thus variations in Ca2+ spark amplitude(More)
A plausible determinant of the specificity of receptor signaling is the cellular compartment over which the signal is broadcast. In rat heart, stimulation of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)-AR), coupled to G(s)-protein, or beta(2)-AR, coupled to G(s)- and G(i)-proteins, both increase L-type Ca(2+) current, causing enhanced contractile strength. But(More)
Cardiomyocytes contract against a mechanical load during each heartbeat, and excessive mechanical stress leads to heart diseases. Using a cell-in-gel system that imposes an afterload during cardiomyocyte contraction, we found that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was involved in transducing mechanical load to alter Ca(2+) dynamics. In mouse ventricular myocytes,(More)
The objective of the current study was to characterize calcium handling in developing human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). To this end, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry, whole-cell voltage-clamp, and simultaneous patch-clamp/laser scanning confocal calcium imaging and surface membrane labeling with(More)
Cardiac atrial cells lack a regular system of transverse tubules like that in cardiac ventricular cells. Nevertheless, many atrial cells do possess an irregular internal transverse-axial tubular system (TATS). To investigate the possible role of the TATS in excitation-contraction coupling in atrial myocytes, we visualized the TATS (labelled with the(More)
RATIONALE Increased contractility of arterial myocytes and enhanced vascular tone during hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus may arise from impaired large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channel function. The scaffolding protein A-kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150) is a key regulator of calcineurin (CaN), a phosphatase known to modulate the(More)