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Evolutionary theory is firmly grounded on the existence of trade-offs between life-history traits, and recent interest has centred on the physiological mechanisms underlying such trade-offs. Several branches of evolutionary biology, particularly those focusing on ageing, immunological and sexual selection theory, have implicated reactive oxygen species(More)
Male tettigoniids donate nutrients to females at mating in the form of a spermatophylax. Male-donated nutrients function as paternal investment leading to a reversal in the sex roles of males and females. Reversal in the behavioral sex roles of a zaphrochiline tettigoniid was found to be directly related to the current availability of food resources in the(More)
In animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating, male genitalia show rapid and divergent evolution. Three hypotheses have been suggested to explain the evolutionary processes responsible for genital evolution: the lock-and-key hypothesis, the pleiotropy hypothesis and the sexual-selection hypothesis. Here, we determine whether variation in(More)
Alternative mating tactics can generate asymmetry in the sperm competition risk between males within species. Theory predicts that adaptations to sperm competition should arise in males facing the greater risk. This prediction is met in the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis where minor males which sneak copulations have a greater expenditure on the ejaculate.(More)
The occurrence of alternative reproductive phenotypes is widespread in most animal taxa. The majority of known examples best fit the notion of alternative tactics within a conditional strategy where the fitness pay-offs depend on an individual's competitive ability or status. Individuals are proposed as "choosing" the tactic that maximizes their fitness,(More)
Using information from physics, biomechanics and evolutionary biology, we explore the implications of physical constraints on sperm performance, and review empirical evidence for links between sperm length and sperm competition (where two or more males compete to fertilise a female's eggs). A common theme in the literature on sperm competition is that(More)
While traditionally viewed as an extension of intermale competition, mechanisms of sperm competition may be used by multiply mating females for mate choice. In the field cricket G. bimaculatus sperm were shown to mix in the spermatheca. The proportion of offspring sired by the second male increased with spermatophore attachment duration and, therefore, the(More)
Female sexual promiscuity can have significant effects on male mating decisions because it increases the intensity of competition between ejaculates for fertilization. Because sperm production is costly, males that can detect multiple matings by females and allocate sperm strategically will have an obvious fitness advantage. The presence of rival males is(More)
Sperm competition is widely recognized as a potent force in evolution, influencing male behavior, morphology, and physiology. Recent game theory analyses have examined how sperm competition can influence the evolution of ejaculate expenditure by males and the morphology of sperm contained within ejaculates. Theoretical analyses rest on the assumption that(More)
Polyandry generates selection on males through sperm competition, which has broad implications for the evolution of ejaculates and male reproductive anatomy. Comparative analyses across species and competitive mating trials within species have suggested that sperm competition can influence the evolution of testes size, sperm production and sperm form and(More)