Leigh W Simmons

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Examination of three populations of the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus revealed the presence of an acoustically-orienting parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea (Tachinidae), in the population of crickets that has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. The cricket is native to Australia and the Pacific, and the fly is native to North America but has also(More)
The past two decades have seen extensive growth of sexual selection research. Theoretical and empirical work has clarified many components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection, such as aggressive competition, mate choice, sperm utilization and sexual conflict. Genetic mechanisms of mate choice evolution have been less amenable to empirical testing,(More)
Evolutionary theory is firmly grounded on the existence of trade-offs between life-history traits, and recent interest has centred on the physiological mechanisms underlying such trade-offs. Several branches of evolutionary biology, particularly those focusing on ageing, immunological and sexual selection theory, have implicated reactive oxygen species(More)
Genetic benefits in the shape of 'good genes' have been invoked to explain costly female choice in the absence of direct fitness benefits. Little genetic variance in fitness traits is expected, however, because directional selection tends to drive beneficial alleles to fixation. There seems to be little potential, therefore, for female choice to result in(More)
Alternative mating tactics can generate asymmetry in the sperm competition risk between males within species. Theory predicts that adaptations to sperm competition should arise in males facing the greater risk. This prediction is met in the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis where minor males which sneak copulations have a greater expenditure on the ejaculate.(More)
Using information from physics, biomechanics and evolutionary biology, we explore the implications of physical constraints on sperm performance, and review empirical evidence for links between sperm length and sperm competition (where two or more males compete to fertilise a female's eggs). A common theme in the literature on sperm competition is that(More)
Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male-male competition--increasing the number of females that they secure as mates--and sperm competition--increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble competition in which males compete by searching for mates and(More)
The Darwin-Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that(More)
Evolutionary psychologists suggest that a preference for sexually dimorphic traits in human faces is an adaptation for mate choice, because such traits reflect health during development. For male faces, this claim rests on the immunocompetence-handicap hypothesis, which states that the increased testosterone levels needed to develop large masculine traits(More)
Beetle horns are enlarged outgrowths of the head or thorax that are used as weapons in contests over access to mates. Horn development is typically confined to males (sexual dimorphism) and often only to the largest males (male dimorphism). Both types of dimorphism result from endocrine threshold mechanisms that coordinate cell proliferation near the end of(More)