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Fjord-scale circulation forced by rising turbulent plumes of subglacial meltwater has been identified as one possible mechanism of oceanic heat transfer to marine-terminating outlet glaciers. This study uses buoyant plume theory and a nonhydrostatic, three-dimensional ocean–ice model of a typical outlet glacier fjord in west Greenland to investigate the(More)
Submarine melting is an important contributor to the mass balance of tidewater glaciers in Greenland, and has been suggested as a trigger for their widespread acceleration. Our understanding of this process is limited, however. It generally relies on the simplified model of subglacial discharge in a homogeneous ocean, where the melting circulation consists(More)
Large, deep-keeled icebergs are ubiquitous in Greenland's outlet glacial fjords. Here we use the movement of these icebergs to quantify flow variability in Sermilik Fjord, southeast Greenland, from the ice mélange through the fjord to the shelf. In the ice mélange, a proglacial mixture of sea ice and icebergs, we find that icebergs consistently track the(More)
Force-balance calculations on Byrd Glacier, East Antarctica, reveal large spatial variations in the along-flow component of driving stress with corresponding sticky spots that are stationary over time. On the large scale, flow resistance is partitioned between basal (�80%) and lateral (�20%) drag. Ice flow is due mostly to basal sliding and concentrated(More)
Submarine melt can account for substantial mass loss at tidewater glacier termini. However, the processes controlling submarine melt are poorly understood due to limited observations of submarine termini. Here at a tidewater glacier in central West Greenland, we identify subglacial discharge outlets and infer submarine melt across the terminus using direct(More)
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Shallow aquifers located near streams can be affected by groundwater contamination as a result of recharge from surface water; however, stream stage variation, subsurface geology, and seasonal changes can alter the magnitude of groundwater-surface water interactions. Knowledge of the influence these factors have on surface water connections with groundwater(More)
Petermann Gletscher drains ∼4% of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) area, with ∼80% of its mass loss occurring by basal melting of its ice shelf. We use a high-resolution coupled ocean and sea-ice model with a thermodynamic glacial ice shelf to diagnose ocean-controlled seasonality in basal melting of the Petermann ice shelf. Basal melt rates increase by ∼20%(More)