Leigh Martens

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CONTEXT Protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy is recommended for infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were exposed to nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. However, there are limitations of continuing PI-based therapy indefinitely and reuse of nevirapine has many advantages. OBJECTIVE To test whether(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have assessed metabolic and body composition alterations in perinatally HIV-infected African children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared metabolic profiles and regional fat of children on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (lopinavir/ritonavir), lamivudine and stavudine to those switched to nevirapine, lamivudine and stavudine. (More)
BACKGROUND Protease-inhibitor-based treatment is recommended as first-line for infants infected with HIV who have been previously exposed to nevirapine prophylaxis. However, long-term use poses adherence challenges, is associated with metabolic toxic effects, restricts second-line options, and is costly. We present the long-term outcomes of switching(More)
IMPORTANCE Advantages of using efavirenz as part of treatment for children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include once-daily dosing, simplification of co-treatment for tuberculosis, preservation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir for second-line treatment, and harmonization of adult and pediatric treatment regimens. However, there have been(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the effects of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on growth outcomes among children infected with HIV followed for 48 months after treatment initiation. STUDY DESIGN This secondary analysis describes anthropometric changes in children infected with HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa who initiated ritonavir-boosted(More)
BACKGROUND Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemias in adults, but there are fewer data on outcomes in young children. Here we examined lipid profile changes in a cohort of young children before and after suppression on an initial ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based regimen and after switch to a nevirapine(More)
Efavirenz, used in treating pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection, has central nervous system side effects. We report on a 5-year-old girl with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection, presenting with new onset absence seizures after starting treatment with efavirenz. Plasma efavirenz values were above therapeutic range. The(More)
BACKGROUND While studies of HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral treatment (ART) report no sex differences in immune recovery and virologic response but more ART-associated complications in women, sex differences in disease progression and response to ART among children have not been well assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate for sex(More)
BACKGROUND High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy are considered necessary to achieve viral suppression. We analyzed data from a cohort of HIV-infected children who were <2 years of age receiving protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy to investigate associations between viral suppression and adherence ascertained using different(More)
BACKGROUND Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy contributes to pharmacokinetic variability and is the major determinant of virological failure. However, measuring treatment adherence is difficult, especially in children. We investigated the relationship between plasma lopinavir concentrations, pretreatment characteristics and viral load >400 copies/ml.(More)
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