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Atrial (ANP), brain (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) belong to a family of hormones important in blood pressure and sodium homeostasis. Expression of ANP has been reported in embryo hearts, but BNP and CNP expression during development has not been described. We used in situ hybridization to identify the sites of gene expression of ANP, BNP, and(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are cardiac hormones, secreted by the atria and ventricles, respectively, in the normal adult heart. They participate in the regulation of blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis and modify growth and development of cardiovascular tissues and bone. Levels of ANP are higher in the fetal(More)
The natriuretic peptides, atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are known to suppress cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Both ANP and BNP exert their bioactivities through the Npr1 receptor, and Npr1 knockout mice (Npr1-/-) exhibit marked cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In this study, we investigated which genes within the hypertrophic and(More)
After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart may undergo progressive ventricular remodeling, resulting in a deterioration of cardiac function. TGF-beta is a key cytokine that both initiates and terminates tissue repair, and its sustained production underlies the development of tissue fibrosis, particularly after MI. We investigated the effects of a novel(More)
AIMS Since their identification in the circulation, microRNAs have received considerable interest as putative biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. We have investigated the diagnostic utility of microRNAs in differentiating between patients with heart failure (HF) and non-HF-related breathlessness, and between HF with reduced (HF-REF) and preserved (HF-PEF)(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are cardiac hormones that regulate blood pressure and volume, and exert their biological actions via the natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene (Npr1). Mice lacking Npr1 (Npr(-/-)) have marked cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis disproportionate to their increased blood pressure. This study(More)
Cardiac gene expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and that of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are markedly elevated after myocardial infarction. The cellular distribution and temporal responses of ANP and BNP messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were compared by in situ hybridization for 5 weeks after left coronary artery ligation in sheep. Ligation(More)
Levels of expression of adrenomedullin (AM) in the uterus have been reported to vary with the reproductive cycle. This study examines the relationships among uterine AM mRNA, the stage of the estrous cycle, and circulating estradiol and progesterone in cycling rats and in ovariectomized (OVX) rats without or with estrogen replacement (ER). Strong AM mRNA,(More)
BACKGROUND The (pro)renin receptor (P)RR is implicated in blood pressure regulation and the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The effects of (P)RR blockade in HF have not been previously investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS Eight sheep received on 2 separate days a vehicle control and incremental intravenous boluses of a (P)RR antagonist, ovine handle(More)
BACKGROUND Reliability of real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data is dependent on the use of appropriate reference gene(s) for normalization. To date, no validated reference genes have been reported for normalizing gene expression in human myocardium. This study aimed to identify validated reference genes for use in gene expression studies of failed and non-failed(More)