Leigh A Eller

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BACKGROUND Clinical trials are increasingly being conducted internationally. In order to ensure enrollment of healthy participants and proper safety evaluation of vaccine candidates, established reference intervals for clinical tests are required in the target population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We report a reference range study conducted in(More)
The potential use of smallpox as a biological weapon has led to the production and stockpiling of smallpox vaccine and the immunization of some healthcare workers. Another public health goal is the licensing of a safer vaccine that could benefit the millions of people advised not to take the current one because they or their contacts have increased(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes differ in biological characteristics that may affect pathogenicity. METHODS We determined the HIV-1 subtype-specific rates of disease progression among 350 HIV-1 seroconverters. Subtype, viral load, and CD4(+) cell count were determined. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used(More)
The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine development remains a global priority. We describe the safety and immunogenicity of a multiclade DNA vaccine prime with a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) boost. METHODS The vaccine is a 6-plasmid mixture encoding HIV envelope (env) subtypes A, B, and C and subtype B gag,(More)
BACKGROUND Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a major contributor to transmission of HIV-1. An understanding of acute HIV-1 infection may be important in the development of treatment strategies to eradicate HIV-1 or achieve a functional cure. METHODS We performed twice-weekly qualitative plasma HIV-1 RNA nucleic acid testing in(More)
The objective of this study was to characterize the class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic composition of the Ugandan population to better define its relationship with other African groups. Samples from 175 individuals from Kampala (Uganda) were subjected to class I HLA-A, -B, and -C sequence-based typing. The high concordance between the major(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Natural killer (NK) cells most likely contribute toward limiting HIV-1 replication, and investigation into their function throughout the course of infection is therefore important. We here aimed to determine the state of the NK cell compartment in Ugandans with untreated HIV-1 clade A or D infection in comparison with matched(More)
The use of rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become standard in HIV testing algorithms employed in resource-limited settings. We report an extensive HIV rapid test validation study conducted among Ugandan blood bank donors at low risk for HIV infection. The operational characteristics of four readily available commercial HIV rapid test(More)
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on natural killer cells are critical components of innate immunity. Interactions between KIRs and their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands have been shown to influence autoimmune and infectious disease course in defined populations. However, the low throughput and high cost of current methods impede(More)