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Stress conditions associated with solid tumors lead to the formation of heterogeneous tumor cell subpopulations and insensitivity to cancer chemotherapeutics. In this report, we show that EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells treated with the chemical stress, brefeldin A (BFA), or the physiological stress, hypoxia, develop resistance to the topoisomerase II(More)
Physiological stress conditions associated with the tumor microenvironment play a role in resistance to anticancer therapy. In this study, treatment of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells with hypoxia or the chemical stress agents brefeldin A (BFA) or okadaic acid (OA) causes the development of resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide. The(More)
We show that professional soccer players and their coaches exhibit reference-dependent behavior during matches. Controlling for the state of the match and for unobserved heterogeneity, we show on a minute-by-minute basis that players breach the rules of the game, measured by the referee's assignment of cards, significantly more often if their teams are(More)
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