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We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009-2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
SIRT6 is a member of a highly conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases with various roles in metabolism, stress resistance, and life span. SIRT6-deficient mice develop normally but succumb to a lethal hypoglycemia early in life; however, the mechanism underlying this hypoglycemia remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT6 functions as a(More)
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a key event during tumorigenesis. Despite being known for decades (Warburg effect), the molecular mechanisms regulating this switch remained unexplored. Here, we identify SIRT6 as a tumor suppressor that regulates aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Importantly, loss of SIRT6 leads to tumor formation without(More)
There is much evidence to suggest that strong interactions between terrestrial ecosystems and climate variability exist. Referred to as the 'Roof of the World' and the 'Third Pole of the Earth', the Tibetan Plateau (also known as the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau) is well-known both for its high altitude and unique geographical features. The Tibetan Plateau is(More)
This paper proposes a novel approach of cross-layer resource allocation based on Quality of Experience (QoE) for wireless video transmission. We model and formulate the cross-layer resource allocation problem in accordance with the relationship between transmission bit rate and QoE. Our objective is to ameliorate the system QoE level while guaranteeing the(More)
Curcumin (Cur) is a major active component of the food flavor turmeric isolated from the powdered dry rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn., which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to ameliorate intracerebral ischemic damage and reduce brain edema. However, the effects of Cur on the disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) induced by brain ischemia(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a radical and a gas, properties that allow NO to diffuse through membranes and potentially enable it to function as a "volume messenger." This study had two goals: first, to investigate the mechanisms by which NO functions as a modulator of neuronal excitability, and second, to compare NO effects produced by NO release from chemical NO(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate neuronal excitability in the nervous system, but little is known as to whether NO, which is synthesized in certain neurons, also serves functional roles within NO-producing neurons themselves. We investigated this possibility by using a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-expressing neuron, and studied the role of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond(More)
Support of network mobility (NEMO) in next- generation wireless systems requires an effective handover scheme optimized specially for NEMO. Conventional NEMO basic support protocol brings high handover latency, which is unacceptable for the real-time services such as VoIP. And other node mobility schemes are not quite suitable for NEMO. In this paper, we(More)