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Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells provide selection signals to germinal center B cells, which is essential for long-lived antibody responses. High CXCR5 and low CCR7 expression facilitates their homing to B cell follicles and distinguishes them from T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells. Here, we showed that Bcl-6 directs Tfh cell differentiation:(More)
The problem of blind noise level estimation arises in many image processing applications, such as denoising, compression, and segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new noise level estimation method on the basis of principal component analysis of image blocks. We show that the noise variance can be estimated as the smallest eigenvalue of the image block(More)
The effects of nano-TiO2 (rutile) and non-nano-TiO2 on the germination and growth of naturally aged spinach seeds were studied by measuring the germination rate and the germination and vigor indexes of aged spinach seeds. An increase of these factors was observed at 0.25–4‰ nano-TiO2 treatment. During the growth stage, the plant dry weight was increased, as(More)
Noise variance estimation is required in many image denoising, compression, and segmentation applications. In this work, we propose a fast noise variance estimation algorithm based on principal component analysis of image blocks. First, we rearrange image blocks into vectors and compute the covariance matrix of these vectors. Then, we use Bartlett’s test in(More)
Ammonium is one of the most important nitrogen sources for bacteria, fungi, and plants, but it is toxic to animals. The ammonium transport proteins (methylamine permeases/ammonium transporters/rhesus) are present in all domains of life; however, functional studies with members of this family have yielded controversial results with respect to the chemical(More)
We have developed a new primer design method based on the QuickChange site-directed mutagenesis protocol, which significantly improves the PCR amplification efficiency. This design method minimizes primer dimerization and ensures the priority of primer-template annealing over primer self-pairing during the PCR. Several different multiple mutations (up to 7(More)
Studies in the 1930s demonstrated that birds possess photoreceptors that are located within the hypothalamus and regulate photoperiodic responses to day length. Most recently, photoperiod has been shown to alter the activity of the pars tuberalis to release thyrotrophin, which ultimately drives a reproductive response. Despite these significant findings,(More)
We have isolated and functionally characterized a multicomponent Oct-1 coactivator, OCA-S which is essential for S phase-dependent histone H2B transcription. The p38 component of OCA-S binds directly to Oct-1, exhibits potent transactivation potential, is selectively recruited to the H2B promoter in S phase, and is essential for S phase-specific H2B(More)
Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its(More)
In addition to being energy generators, mitochondria control many cellular processes including apoptosis. They are dynamic organelles, and the machinery of membrane fusion and fission is emerging as a key regulator of mitochondrial biology. We have recently identified a novel and conserved mitochondrial rhomboid intramembrane protease that controls membrane(More)