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Noise variance estimation is required in many image denoising, compression, and segmentation applications. In this work, we propose a fast noise variance estimation algorithm based on principal component analysis of image blocks. First, we rearrange image blocks into vectors and compute the covariance matrix of these vectors. Then, we use Bartlett's test in(More)
The problem of blind noise level estimation arises in many image processing applications, such as denoising, compression, and segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new noise level estimation method on the basis of principal component analysis of image blocks. We show that the noise variance can be estimated as the smallest eigenvalue of the image block(More)
We have isolated and functionally characterized a multicomponent Oct-1 coactivator, OCA-S which is essential for S phase-dependent histone H2B transcription. The p38 component of OCA-S binds directly to Oct-1, exhibits potent transactivation potential, is selectively recruited to the H2B promoter in S phase, and is essential for S phase-specific H2B(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a neuroprotective role in mice harboring mutations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Conversely, the loss of VEGF expression through genetic depletion can give rise to a phenotype resembling ALS independent of SOD1 mutations. Here, we observe a(More)
Root tissue is the primary site of perception for stress from soil, and is the main tissue involved in stress response. Tamarix hispida is a woody halophyte that is highly tolerant to salt and drought stress, but little information available about gene expression in roots in response to abiotic stress. In this study, eight transcriptomes from roots of T.(More)
This paper conducts a content analysis on the performance of information and interactions in selected Chinese government microblog accounts as innovations in the public sector. In specific, the study examines the quantity, content, stakeholders related, government levels related, timeliness, forms, language styles, sources of message, the use of push, and(More)
Studies in the 1930s demonstrated that birds possess photoreceptors that are located within the hypothalamus and regulate photoperiodic responses to day length. Most recently, photoperiod has been shown to alter the activity of the pars tuberalis to release thyrotrophin, which ultimately drives a reproductive response. Despite these significant findings,(More)
Dopamine D₂ receptor antagonists effectively reduce positive symptoms in schizophrenia, implicating abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission as an underlying mechanism of psychosis. Despite the well-established, albeit incomplete, clinical efficacies of D₂ antagonists, no studies have examined their effects on functional interaction between brain regions. We(More)
The aggressiveness of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by its high metastatic potential and lack of effective therapies, which is the result of a lack of understanding of the mechanisms involved in promoting PDA metastases. We identified Annexin A2 (ANXA2), a member of the Annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding(More)
Voluntary exercise has tremendous effects on adult hippocampal plasticity and metabolism and thus sculpts the hippocampal structure of mammals. High-field (1)H magnetic resonance (MR) investigations at 9.4 T of metabolic and structural changes can be performed non-invasively in the living rodent brain. Numerous molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating(More)