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Understanding the origins and roles of cardiac progenitor cells is important for elucidating the pathogenesis of congenital and acquired heart diseases. Moreover, manipulation of cardiac myocyte progenitors has potential for cell-based repair strategies for various myocardial disorders. Here we report the identification in mouse of a previously unknown(More)
A number of human congenital disorders present with both heart and limb defects, consistent with common genetic pathways. We have recently shown that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor islet 1 (Isl1) marks a subset of cardiac progenitors. Here, we perform lineage studies with an Isl1Cre mouse line to demonstrate that Isl1 also marks a subset of limb(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) marks pluripotent cardiovascular progenitor cells and is required for proliferation, survival, and migration of recently defined second heart field progenitors. Factors that are upstream of Isl1 in cardiovascular progenitors have not yet been defined. Here we(More)
The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are nearly always infected with many different microorganisms. This environment offers warm, humid and nutrient-rich conditions, but is also stressful owing to frequent antibiotic therapy and the host immune response. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly isolated from the airways of patients with CF, where it(More)
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play major roles in generating highly functionalized terpenoids, but identifying the exact biotransformation step(s) catalyzed by plant CYP in terpenoid biosynthesis is extremely challenging. Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid naphthoquinones that are the main lipophilic bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal(More)
The contribution of cloud computing and mobile computing technologies lead to the newly emerging mobile cloud computing paradigm. Three major approaches have been proposed for mobile cloud applications: 1) extending the access to cloud services to mobile devices; 2) enabling mobile devices to work collaboratively as cloud resource providers; 3) augmenting(More)
Laboratory evolution experiments have led to important findings relating organism adaptation and genomic evolution. However, continuous monitoring of long-term evolution has been lacking for natural systems, limiting our understanding of these processes in situ. Here we characterize the evolutionary dynamics of a lineage of a clinically important(More)
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a perennial plant of Lamiaceae, accumulates abietane-type diterpenoids of tanshinones in root, which have been used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat neuroasthenic insomnia and cardiovascular diseases. However, to date the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinones is only partially elucidated and the mechanism for their(More)
Despite 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) and tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) having multiple effects on cancer cells, mechanistically, both of them down-regulate hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesize HIF-1alpha plays an essential role in cerebral ischemia as a pro-apoptosis regulator; 2ME2(More)
Gene number difference among organisms demonstrates that new gene origination is a fundamental biological process in evolution. Exon shuffling has been universally observed in the formation of new genes. Yet to be learned are the ways new exons originate and evolve, and how often new exons appear. To address these questions, we identified 2695 newly evolved(More)