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Despite efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with the observed histological progression are unclear. Using laser-capture microdissection to isolate 101 cell populations, we have profiled prostate cancer progression from benign epithelium to metastatic disease. By analyzing expression signatures(More)
In this paper, we present the mQA model, which is able to answer questions about the content of an image. The answer can be a sentence, a phrase or a single word. Our model contains four components: a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to extract the question representation, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract the visual representation, an LSTM for(More)
Recently, we identified recurrent gene fusions involving the 5' untranslated region of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the ETS (E26 transformation-specific) family genes ERG, ETV1 or ETV4 in most prostate cancers. Whereas TMPRSS2-ERG fusions are predominant, fewer TMPRSS2-ETV1 cases have been identified than expected on the basis of the frequency of(More)
In the literature of feature selection, different criteria have been proposed to evaluate the goodness of features. In our investigation, we notice that a number of existing selection criteria implicitly select features that preserve sample similarity, and can be unified under a common framework. We further point out that any feature selection criteria(More)
It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain, but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial. In the present study, we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult(More)
More than 1,000,000 men undergo prostate biopsy each year in the United States, most for "elevated" serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Given the lack of specificity and unclear mortality benefit of PSA testing, methods to individualize management of elevated PSA are needed. Greater than 50% of PSA-screened prostate cancers harbor fusions between the(More)
The success of many machine learning and pattern recognition methods relies heavily upon the identification of an appropriate distance metric on the input data. It is often beneficial to learn such a metric from the input training data, instead of using a default one such as the Euclidean distance. In this work, we propose a boosting-based technique, termed(More)
Cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have crucial roles in the development and function of the cerebral cortex. In rodents, nearly all neocortical interneurons are generated from the subcortical ganglionic eminences. In humans and nonhuman primates, however, the developmental origin of neocortical GABAergic interneurons remains unclear. Here we show(More)
We recently reported the identification of recurrent gene fusions in the majority of prostate cancers involving the 5' untranslated region of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the ETS family members ERG, ETV1, and ETV4. Here we report the noninvasive detection of these gene fusions in the urine of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. By(More)