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As a final step in endocytosis, clathrin-coated pits must separate from the plasma membrane and move into the cytosol as a coated vesicle. Because these events involve minute movements that conventional light microscopy cannot resolve, they have not been observed directly and their dynamics remain unexplored. Here, we used evanescent field (EF) microscopy(More)
Link quality model is widely used in system evaluations to simplify the simulation complexity. It is also important in practical systems for improving the accuracy of the link adaptation and the efficiency of radio-resource-management. Conventional linear average SNR characterization of fading channel performance lacks generality, since the same linear SNR(More)
We investigated the location of calcium entry sites and synaptic ribbons in the type-Mb goldfish bipolar neuron and the bullfrog saccular hair cell. Cells were loaded with a fast calcium indicator (Fluo-3 or Fluo-5F) and an excess of a high-affinity but slow Ca buffer (EGTA). The cell surface was imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Small fluorescent "hot(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria form contacts that support communication between these two organelles, including synthesis and transfer of lipids, and the exchange of calcium, which regulates ER chaperones, mitochondrial ATP production, and apoptosis. Despite the fundamental roles for ER-mitochondria contacts, little is known about the(More)
We report the role of one member of a novel gene family, PACS-1, in the localization of trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane proteins. PACS-1 directs the TGN localization of furin by binding to the protease's phosphorylated cytosolic domain. Antisense studies show TGN localization of furin and mannose-6-phosphate receptor, but not TGN46, is strictly dependent(More)
PURPOSE To investigate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms in unrelated Taiwan Chinese patients with late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and controls. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. METHODS We enrolled 190 late AMD patients and 180 age-matched and gender-matched controls. Late AMD was classified as either dry(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common urologic malignancy involving multiple factors. There is evidence that suggests that detoxification enzymes and growth factors may play a role in the formation of prostate cancer. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GST M1), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), and epidermal(More)
Ribeye is the only known protein specific to synaptic ribbon, but its function is unclear. We show that the teleost fish, Fugu and zebrafish, have two ribeye genes, ribeye a and ribeye b. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that ribeye a is expressed in tissues containing synaptic ribbons, including the pineal gland, inner ear, and retina. Ribeye b(More)
Significant progress has been made recently on the use of multicarrier modulation in the form of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for high data rate underwater acoustic communications. In this paper, we present implementation results of OFDM acoustic modems under different settings with either one or two parallel data streams transmitted,(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the Met72Thr (T/C) polymorphism (rs1136287) of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) gene exon 3 in unrelated Taiwan Chinese patients with late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and control subjects without AMD. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. METHODS We enrolled 190 unrelated Taiwan Chinese patients with late AMD(More)