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Retrotransposons constitute over 40% of the human genome and play important roles in the evolution of the genome. Since certain types of retrotransposons, particularly members of the Alu, L1, and SVA families, are still active, their recent and ongoing propagation generates a unique and important class of human genomic diversity/polymorphism (for the(More)
Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a natural functional amino acid. In the current study, Lactobacillus brevis TCCC13007, a high GABA-producing strain, was isolated from naturally pickled Chinese vegetables. A two-step cellular bioconversion process was established using L. brevis TCCC13007 for the production of GABA. First, L. brevis cells were grown(More)
Outer hair cells (OHCs) drive cochlear amplification that enhances our ability to detect and discriminate sounds. The motor protein, prestin, which evolved from the SLC26 anion transporter family, underlies the OHC's voltage-dependent mechanical activity (eM). Here we report on simultaneous measures of prestin's voltage-sensor charge movement (nonlinear(More)
The development of the auditory brainstem response was studied to quantitatively assess its dependence on stimulus frequency and level. Responses were not observed to stimuli > or =16 kHz on P12, however, the full range of responsive frequencies included in the study was observed by P14. Response thresholds were high on P12, exceeding 100 dB SPL for all(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction causes poorly understood tissue-specific pathology stemming from primary defects in respiration, coupled with altered reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolic signaling, and apoptosis. The A1555G mtDNA mutation that causes maternally inherited deafness disrupts mitochondrial ribosome function, in part, via increased methylation of(More)
Chloride ions have been hypothesized to interact with the membrane outer hair cell (OHC) motor protein, prestin on its intracellular domain to confer voltage sensitivity (Oliver et al., 2001). Thus, we hypothesized previously that transmembrane chloride movements via the lateral membrane conductance of the cell, GmetL, could serve to underlie cochlear(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) type II receptor (TβRII) levels are extremely low in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This receptor inhibits TGF-β1/SMAD signaling and thereby aggravates amyolid-beta deposition and neuronal injury. Dab2, a specific adapter protein, protects TβRII from degradation and ensures the effective(More)
The rumen hosts one of the most efficient microbial systems for degrading plant cell walls, yet the predominant cellulolytic proteins and fibrolytic mechanism(s) remain elusive. Here we investigated the cellulolytic microbiome of the yak rumen by using a combination of metagenome-based and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based functional screening(More)
Tshrhyt/hyt mutant mice express a point mutation in the gene encoding the thyrotropin receptor, and affected animals are congenitally hypothyroid and profoundly deaf as a consequence when the condition is untreated. In this investigation, a previously unrecognized developmental stage was identified in the hypothyroid, mutant progeny of hypothyroid dams by(More)
Genotype-phenotype correlation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been challenging because of the genetic and clinical heterogeneity. To determine the mutation profile of Chinese patients with HCM and to correlate genotypes with phenotypes, we performed a systematic mutation screening of the eight most commonly mutated genes encoding sarcomere(More)