Lei Song

Learn More
In this paper we present a probabilistic broadcast calculus for mobile and wireless networks whose connections are unreliable. In our calculus, broad-casted messages can be lost with a certain probability, and due to mobility the connection probabilities may change. If a network broadcasts a message from a location, it will evolve to a network distribution(More)
Probabilistic automata (PA) [20] have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL [11] and its extension PCTL * [4]. Various behav-ioral equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a(More)
This paper presents a formal characterisation of safety and liveness properties for fully probabilistic systems. As for the classical setting, it is established that any (probabilistic tree) property is equivalent to a conjunction of a safety and liveness property. A simple algorithm is provided to obtain such a property decomposition for flat probabilistic(More)
Small-diameter (<4 mm) vascular constructs are urgently needed for patients requiring replacement of their peripheral vessels. However, successful development of constructs remains a significant challenge. In this study, we successfully developed small-diameter vascular constructs with high patency using our integrally designed computer-controlled(More)
Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation (PSF) in a second procedure is mostly used to implement lumbar spine fusion. ALIF followed by anterior lumbar screw-plate has a lot of advantages, but its biomechanical stability requires confirmation. This study evaluated the biomechanical stability of a novel anterior(More)
The following full text is a preprint version which may differ from the publisher's version. Abstract. The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to(More)
We introduce a continuous time stochastic broadcast calculus for mobile and wireless networks. The mobility between nodes in a network is mod-eled by a stochastic mobility function which allows to change part of a network topology depending on an exponentially distributed delay and a network topology constraint. We allow continuous time stochastic behavior(More)
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine (OPLL) is characterized by the replacement of ligament tissues with ectopic bone formation, and this result is strongly affected by genetic and local factors. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs2273073 (T/G) and rs235768 (A/T) of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene(More)