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Retrotransposons constitute over 40% of the human genome and play important roles in the evolution of the genome. Since certain types of retrotransposons, particularly members of the Alu, L1, and SVA families, are still active, their recent and ongoing propagation generates a unique and important class of human genomic diversity/polymorphism (for the(More)
Zebrafish are popular models for biological discovery. For investigators of the auditory and vestibular periphery, manipulations of hair cell and synaptic mechanisms have relied on inferences from extracellular recordings of physiological activity. We now provide data showing that hair cells and supporting cells of the lateral line can be directly(More)
Outer hair cells (OHCs) drive cochlear amplification that enhances our ability to detect and discriminate sounds. The motor protein, prestin, which evolved from the SLC26 anion transporter family, underlies the OHC's voltage-dependent mechanical activity (eM). Here we report on simultaneous measures of prestin's voltage-sensor charge movement (nonlinear(More)
The development of the auditory brainstem response was studied to quantitatively assess its dependence on stimulus frequency and level. Responses were not observed to stimuli > or =16 kHz on P12, however, the full range of responsive frequencies included in the study was observed by P14. Response thresholds were high on P12, exceeding 100 dB SPL for all(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction causes poorly understood tissue-specific pathology stemming from primary defects in respiration, coupled with altered reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolic signaling, and apoptosis. The A1555G mtDNA mutation that causes maternally inherited deafness disrupts mitochondrial ribosome function, in part, via increased methylation of(More)
Chloride ions have been hypothesized to interact with the membrane outer hair cell (OHC) motor protein, prestin on its intracellular domain to confer voltage sensitivity (Oliver et al., 2001). Thus, we hypothesized previously that transmembrane chloride movements via the lateral membrane conductance of the cell, GmetL, could serve to underlie cochlear(More)
In this paper we present a probabilistic broadcast calculus for mobile and wireless networks whose connections are unreliable. In our calculus, broad-casted messages can be lost with a certain probability, and due to mobility the connection probabilities may change. If a network broadcasts a message from a location, it will evolve to a network distribution(More)
Tshrhyt/hyt mutant mice express a point mutation in the gene encoding the thyrotropin receptor, and affected animals are congenitally hypothyroid and profoundly deaf as a consequence when the condition is untreated. In this investigation, a previously unrecognized developmental stage was identified in the hypothyroid, mutant progeny of hypothyroid dams by(More)
Probabilistic automata (PA) [20] have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL [11] and its extension PCTL * [4]. Various behav-ioral equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a(More)