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Retrotransposons constitute over 40% of the human genome and play important roles in the evolution of the genome. Since certain types of retrotransposons, particularly members of the Alu, L1, and SVA families, are still active, their recent and ongoing propagation generates a unique and important class of human genomic diversity/polymorphism (for the(More)
In this paper, we analyze the performance of a CDMA reverse link with an up/down power control algorithm in the presence of fading. We derive a stochastic non-linear feedback control system model for the power controlled reverse link and study the power control performance based on the nonlinear model using the technique of statistical linearization. We(More)
In this paper, we study SIR and rate control for CDMA data users on the forward link under average or peak power constraints. The QoS for data users is specified by delay and error rate constraints as well as a family of utility functions representing the throughput and fairness among the data users. It is found that the optimal SIR and rate control(More)
—In this letter, we propose a low complexity linear precoding scheme for downlink multiuser MIMO precoding systems where there is no limit on the number of multiple antennas employed at both the base station and the users. In the proposed algorithm, we can achieve the precoder in two steps. In the first step, we balance the multiuser interference (MUI) and(More)
We describe a sensitive mRNA profiling technology, PMAGE (for "polony multiplex analysis of gene expression"), which detects messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as rare as one transcript per three cells. PMAGE incorporates an improved ligation-based method to sequence 14-nucleotide tags derived from individual mRNA molecules. One sequence tag from each mRNA molecule is(More)
Zebrafish are popular models for biological discovery. For investigators of the auditory and vestibular periphery, manipulations of hair cell and synaptic mechanisms have relied on inferences from extracellular recordings of physiological activity. We now provide data showing that hair cells and supporting cells of the lateral line can be directly(More)
Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a natural functional amino acid. In the current study, Lactobacillus brevis TCCC13007, a high GABA-producing strain, was isolated from naturally pickled Chinese vegetables. A two-step cellular bioconversion process was established using L. brevis TCCC13007 for the production of GABA. First, L. brevis cells were grown(More)
Outer hair cells (OHCs) drive cochlear amplification that enhances our ability to detect and discriminate sounds. The motor protein, prestin, which evolved from the SLC26 anion transporter family, underlies the OHC's voltage-dependent mechanical activity (eM). Here we report on simultaneous measures of prestin's voltage-sensor charge movement (nonlinear(More)
The development of the auditory brainstem response was studied to quantitatively assess its dependence on stimulus frequency and level. Responses were not observed to stimuli > or =16 kHz on P12, however, the full range of responsive frequencies included in the study was observed by P14. Response thresholds were high on P12, exceeding 100 dB SPL for all(More)