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SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We(More)
The major protein constituents of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the 40-residue beta-amyloid (Abeta) (1-40) peptide and the 42-residue Abeta(1-42) peptide. The Abeta(1-42) is more pathogenic and produced in greater quantities in familial forms of AD. A major goal of research is to uncover a suitable inhibitor that either slows down or(More)
New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but(More)
—A novel model, called evolutionary patched model, based on the patched conic approximation is applied to the optimization of space missions with engineering constraints in this paper. The interplanetary trajectory consists of geocentric escape orbit, heliocentric transfer orbit and target capture orbit. The model, firstly, gets the escape orbit and capture(More)
Studies have shown that stem cells exert their therapeutic effects on acute kidney injury (AKI) through paracrine/endocrine actions. If the protective effect is mediated in an endocrine manner, the injection of the factors that these cells secrete could be effective, but the effect of conditioned medium (CM) remains controversial. In this study, we cultured(More)
Although many agents have therapeutic potentials for central nervous system (CNS) diseases, few of these agents have been clinically used because of the brain barriers. As the protective barrier of the CNS, the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier maintain the brain microenvironment, neuronal activity, and proper functioning of the(More)
The aims of the study were to show the direct effect of nicotine with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 ng/ml) on chondrocytes isolated from normal human and osteoarthritis patients, respectively. Microscopic observation was performed during the culture with an inverted microscope. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay method was adopted to(More)