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We investigated the effect of chronic administration of morphine on noxious stimulus-induced antinociception (NSIA) produced by intraplantar capsaicin injection. In the untreated (naive) rat, we previously found that NSIA depends on activation of dopamine, nicotinic acetylcholine, and mu- and delta-opioid receptors in nucleus accumbens. Rats chronically(More)
By using current-sensing differential buses with driver pre-emphasis techniques, power dissipation is reduced by 26.0% - 51.2% and peak current is reduced by 63.8%, compared to conventional repeater insertion techniques, for 10mm long buses in TSMC 0.25μm technology. This proposed architecture lowers the worst coupling capacitance to total capacitance(More)
—This paper describes a differential current-mode bus architecture based on driver pre-emphasis for on-chip global interconnects that achieves high-data rates while reducing bus power dissipation and improving signal delay latency. The 16-b bus core fabricated in 0.25-m complementary metal–oxide–semi-conductor (CMOS) technology attains an aggregate(More)
Although pretreatment neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte–monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are reportedly associated with clinical outcomes of many cancers, their roles in patients with bladder cancer (BCa) who undergo radical cystectomy (RC) have not been widely investigated. We analyzed relationships between preoperative(More)
A heterojunction of n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and p-type silicon has been successfully constructed to demonstrate ultraviolet (UV) photodiodes. The prototype device consists of naturally doped n-type ZnO nanowires grown on top of a (1 0 0) p-silicon substrate by the bottom-up growth process. The diameter of the nanowires is in the range of 70–120(More)
Recently, regression analysis based classification methods are popular for robust face recognition. These methods use a pixel-based error model, which assumes that errors of pixels are independent. This assumption does not hold in the case of contiguous occlusion, where the errors are spatially correlated. Furthermore, these methods ignore the whole(More)