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Phase change memory (PCM) recently has emerged as a promising technology to meet the fast growing demand for large capacity memory in modern computer systems. In particular, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM that stores multiple bits in a single cell, offers high density with low per-byte fabrication cost. However, despite many advantages, such as good scalability(More)
As a promising nonvolatile memory technology, Phase Change Memory (PCM) has many advantages over traditional DRAM. Multi-level Cell PCM (MLC) has the benefit of increased memory capacity with low fabrication cost. Due to high per-cell write power and long write latency, MLC PCM requires careful power management to ensure write reliability. Unfortunately,(More)
Water samples were collected from 19 sampling sites along the Huangpu River in June and December 2009. The occurrence, distribution and seasonal variation of 22 antibiotics, including four tetracyclines, three chloramphenicols, two macrolides, six fluoroquinolones, six sulfonamides and trimethoprim were investigated. It was found that all 19 sampling sites(More)
The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their relationship with antibiotics in the surface waters of the Huangpu River and the drinking water sources of Shanghai, China, were investigated. 39 ARGs, including four sulfonamide ARGs, 23 tetracycline ARGs, four chloramphenicol ARGs, five β-lactam ARGs and three penicillin ARGs were targeted in(More)
MLC STT-MRAM (Multi-level Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM), an emerging non-volatile memory technology, has become a promising candidate to construct L2 caches for high-end embedded processors. However, the long write latency limits the effectiveness of MLC STT-MRAM based L2 caches. In this paper, we address this limitation with two novel designs:(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) has recently emerged as a promising nonvolatile memory technology. To effectively increase memory capacity and reduce per bit fabrication cost, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM stores more than one bit per cell by differentiating multiple intermediate resistance levels. However, MLC PCM suffers from significantly shortened endurance due(More)
STT-MRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM) has recently emerged as one of the most promising memory technologies for constructing large capacity last level cache (LLC) of low power mobile processors. With fast technology scaling, STT-MRAM read operations will become destructive such that post-read restores are inevitable to ensure data reliability.(More)
Due to the scalability and large leakage power, dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) has a lot of challenges in scaling. As an alternative, phase change memory (PCM) has demonstrated promising potential to serve as the main memory in deep submicrometer regime. The broad resistance range of PCM cells enables several cell modes with various densities,(More)
Many biological surfaces in both the plant and animal kingdom possess unusual structural features at the micro- and nanometre-scale that control their interaction with water and hence wettability. An intriguing example is provided by desert beetles, which use micrometre-sized patterns of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions on their backs to capture water(More)