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Astrocytes have a higher antioxidant potential in comparison to neurons. Pathways associated with this selective advantage include the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant enzymes via the action of the Cap'n'Collar transcription factor Nrf2 at the antioxidant response element (ARE). Here we show that Nrf2 overexpression can reengineer neurons to(More)
3D die stacking is an exciting new technology that increases transistor density by vertically integrating two or more die with a dense, high-speed interface. The result of 3D die stacking is a significant reduction of interconnect both within a die and across dies in a system. For instance, blocks within a microprocessor can be placed vertically on multiple(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) recently has emerged as a promising technology to meet the fast growing demand for large capacity memory in modern computer systems. In particular, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM that stores multiple bits in a single cell, offers high density with low per-byte fabrication cost. However, despite many advantages, such as good scalability(More)
A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of(More)
As a promising nonvolatile memory technology, Phase Change Memory (PCM) has many advantages over traditional DRAM. Multi-level Cell PCM (MLC) has the benefit of increased memory capacity with low fabrication cost. Due to high per-cell write power and long write latency, MLC PCM requires careful power management to ensure write reliability. Unfortunately,(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) has recently emerged as a promising nonvolatile memory technology. To effectively increase memory capacity and reduce per bit fabrication cost, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM stores more than one bit per cell by differentiating multiple intermediate resistance levels. However, MLC PCM suffers from significantly shortened endurance due(More)
MLC STT-MRAM (Multi-level Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM), an emerging non-volatile memory technology, has become a promising candidate to construct L2 caches for high-end embedded processors. However, the long write latency limits the effectiveness of MLC STT-MRAM based L2 caches. In this paper, we address this limitation with two novel designs:(More)
STT-MRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM) has recently emerged as one of the most promising memory technologies for constructing large capacity last level cache (LLC) of low power mobile processors. With fast technology scaling, STT-MRAM read operations will become destructive such that post-read restores are inevitable to ensure data reliability.(More)
Business organizations continuously monitor their environments , looking out for opportunities and threats that may help/hinder the fulfilment of their objectives. We are interested in strategic business models that support such governance activities. In this paper, we focus on the concept of composite indicator and show how it can be used as basic building(More)