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3D die stacking is an exciting new technology that increases transistor density by vertically integrating two or more die with a dense, high-speed interface. The result of 3D die stacking is a significant reduction of interconnect both within a die and across dies in a system. For instance, blocks within a microprocessor can be placed vertically on multiple(More)
Astrocytes have a higher antioxidant potential in comparison to neurons. Pathways associated with this selective advantage include the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant enzymes via the action of the Cap'n'Collar transcription factor Nrf2 at the antioxidant response element (ARE). Here we show that Nrf2 overexpression can reengineer neurons to(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) recently has emerged as a promising technology to meet the fast growing demand for large capacity memory in modern computer systems. In particular, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM that stores multiple bits in a single cell, offers high density with low per-byte fabrication cost. However, despite many advantages, such as good scalability(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) has recently emerged as a promising nonvolatile memory technology. To effectively increase memory capacity and reduce per bit fabrication cost, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM stores more than one bit per cell by differentiating multiple intermediate resistance levels. However, MLC PCM suffers from significantly shortened endurance due(More)
A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) has emerged as a promising technology for main memory due to many advan­ tages, such as better scalability, non-volatility and fast read access. However, PCM's limited write endurance restricts its immediate use as a replacement for DRAM. Recent studies have revealed that a PCM chip which integrates millions to billions of bit(More)
MLC STT-MRAM (Multi-level Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM), an emerging non-volatile memory technology, has become a promising candidate to construct L2 caches for high-end embedded processors. However, the long write latency limits the effectiveness of MLC STT-MRAM based L2 caches. In this paper, we address this limitation with two novel designs:(More)
As a promising nonvolatile memory technology, Phase Change Memory (PCM) has many advantages over traditional DRAM. Multi-level Cell PCM (MLC) has the benefit of increased memory capacity with low fabrication cost. Due to high per-cell write power and long write latency, MLC PCM requires careful power management to ensure write reliability. Unfortunately,(More)
We address the fundamental question: what does it mean for data in a database to be of high quality? We motivate our discussion with examples, where traditional views on data quality are found to be unsatisfactory. Our work is founded on the premise that data values are primarily linguistic signs that convey meaning from their producer to their user through(More)