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Phase change memory (PCM) recently has emerged as a promising technology to meet the fast growing demand for large capacity memory in modern computer systems. In particular, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM that stores multiple bits in a single cell, offers high density with low per-byte fabrication cost. However, despite many advantages, such as good scalability(More)
As a promising nonvolatile memory technology, Phase Change Memory (PCM) has many advantages over traditional DRAM. Multi-level Cell PCM (MLC) has the benefit of increased memory capacity with low fabrication cost. Due to high per-cell write power and long write latency, MLC PCM requires careful power management to ensure write reliability. Unfortunately,(More)
Most chronic kidney injuries inevitably progress to irreversible renal fibrosis. Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized to play pivotal roles in the process of renal fibrosis. However, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of renal scar formation and progression remains an urgent task for renal researchers. The(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) has recently emerged as a promising nonvolatile memory technology. To effectively increase memory capacity and reduce per bit fabrication cost, multi-level cell (MLC) PCM stores more than one bit per cell by differentiating multiple intermediate resistance levels. However, MLC PCM suffers from significantly shortened endurance due(More)
MLC STT-MRAM (Multi-level Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM), an emerging non-volatile memory technology, has become a promising candidate to construct L2 caches for high-end embedded processors. However, the long write latency limits the effectiveness of MLC STT-MRAM based L2 caches. In this paper, we address this limitation with two novel designs:(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) has emerged as a promising technology for main memory due to many advantages, such as better scalability, non-volatility and fast read access. However, PCM's limited write endurance restricts its immediate use as a replacement for DRAM. Recent studies have revealed that a PCM chip which integrates millions to billions of bit cells(More)
STT-MRAM (Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM) has recently emerged as one of the most promising memory technologies for constructing large capacity last level cache (LLC) of low power mobile processors. With fast technology scaling, STT-MRAM read operations will become destructive such that post-read restores are inevitable to ensure data reliability.(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that both steroids and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve kidney survival and decrease proteinuria in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the addition of steroids to ACE-inhibitor therapy produces a more potent antiproteinuric effect and better(More)
Despite the recent attention focused on the important role of autophagy in maintaining podocyte homeostasis, little is known about the changes and mechanisms of autophagy in podocyte dysfunction under diabetic condition. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in podocyte biology and its involvement in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.(More)
Polyethylene (PE) has been considered nonbiodegradable for decades. Although the biodegradation of PE by bacterial cultures has been occasionally described, valid evidence of PE biodegradation has remained limited in the literature. We found that waxworms, or Indian mealmoths (the larvae of Plodia interpunctella), were capable of chewing and eating PE(More)