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What mechanism that determines microglia accomplishing destructive or constructive role in CNS remains nebulous. We report here that intracranial priming and rechallenging with Toxoplasma gondii in mice elicit neurotoxic CCR9+ Irg1+ (immunoresponsive gene 1) microglia, which render resistance to apoptosis and produce a high level of TNF-alpha; priming and(More)
OBJECTIVE Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, adiponutrin) has been identified as a modifier of lipid metabolism. To better understand the physiological role of PNPLA3/adiponutrin, we have investigated its regulation in intact mice and human hepatocytes under various nutritional/metabolic conditions. MATERIAL/METHODS PNPLA3 gene(More)
Perilla frutescens is a medicinal plant that produces various bioactive compounds, including unsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (α-O-caffeoyl-3, 4 -dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, RA). Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the first step in the tyrosine-derived branch of RA biosynthesis, and TAT is presumed to have a role(More)
This study investigated the ameliorative effect of black rice anthocyanin (BACN) in senescent mice induced by D-galactose. The male mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely, the normal group, the model group and dosage groups (15, 30 and 60 mg kg(-1) of BACN). The model group and three dosage groups were continuously injected subcutaneously with(More)
Iron deficiency anemia in early life alters the development and functioning of the dopamine neurotransmitter system, but data regarding the specific effects of brain iron loss on dopamine D(2) receptor regulation are lacking. Cell culture and animal models were employed in this study to determine whether D(2) receptor expression is altered when cellular(More)
The accumulation of hepatic TG and development of hepatic steatosis (HS) is a serious complication of the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) formulas containing a high percentage of dextrose. But whether fat emulsions or other nutrients can ameliorate the induction of HS by high-carbohydrate diets is still uncertain. We hypothesized that administration of a(More)
BACKGROUND L-Arabinose is a non-caloric sugar, which could affect glucose and lipid metabolism and suppress obesity. However, few reports have described the effect of L-arabinose in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to explore the effects(More)
BACKGROUND Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; however, the regulation of Fgf21 gene expression by diet remains incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE We investigated the effect of a high-carbohydrate (HC) liquid diet, with and without supplementation with a lipid emulsion (LE), and of a high-fat diet (HFD)(More)
Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains(More)
BACKGROUND Anthocyanins have been proven to be beneficial to the eyes. However, information is scarce about the effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, L.) anthocyanin (PSPA), a class of anthocyanins derived from purple sweet potato roots, on visual health. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSPA could have influences on(More)