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UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Fermentation production of biofuel ethanol consumes agricultural crops, which will compete directly with the food supply. As an alternative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria have been proposed as microbial factories to produce ethanol directly from solar energy and CO2. However, the ethanol productivity from photoautotrophic(More)
BACKGROUND Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have been recently proposed as a 'microbial factory' to produce butanol due to their capability to utilize solar energy and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. However, to improve the productivity, one key issue needed to be addressed is the low tolerance of the photosynthetic hosts to butanol. (More)
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) cascades after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation contributes to innate immune responses. Signal regulatory protein (SIRP) alpha, a member of the SIRP family that is abundantly expressed in macrophages, has been implicated in regulating MAPK and NF-kappaB(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated that photosynthetic cyanobacteria could be an excellent cell factory to produce renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to utilize solar energy and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources. Biosynthesis of carbon-neutral biofuel alkanes with good chemical and physical properties has been(More)
BACKGROUND Achaete scute-like 2 (Ascl2), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, controls the fate of intestinal stem cells. However, the role of Ascl2 in colon cancer progenitor cells remains unknown. The cell line HT-29 (47.5-95% of CD133(+) population) and LS174T (0.45% of CD133(+) population) were chosen for functional evaluation of Ascl2(More)
BACKGROUND Biofuel has been the focus of intensive global research over the past few years. The development of 4th generation biofuel production (algae-to-biofuels) based on metabolic engineering of algae is still in its infancy, one of the main barriers is our lacking of understanding of microalgal growth, metabolism and biofuel production. Although fatty(More)
Salt stress is a common stress that limits growth and productivity of photosynthetic microbes in natural environments. Although cellular responses of a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to high and changing salt concentration have been studied, it remains undefined of the gene components and their regulation in the long-term salt acclimation(More)
INTRODUCTION Severe sepsis is associated with a high mortality rate despite implementation of guideline recommendations. Adjunctive treatment may be efficient and require further investigation. In light of the crucial role of immunologic derangement in severe sepsis, thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is considered as a promising beneficial immunomodulatory drug. The(More)
BACKGROUND Recent efforts demonstrated the potential application of cyanobacteria as a "microbial cell factory" to produce butanol directly from CO2. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to the toxic butanol, which limits the economic viability of this renewable system. RESULTS Through a long-term experimental evolution process, we achieved a(More)