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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. Here we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) GLP-1 and [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) (HSEGTFTSD; homologous to a conserved domain in the glucagon/GLP-1 family) enhance associative and spatial learning through GLP-1R. [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9), but(More)
Cancer is influenced by its microenvironment, yet broader, environmental effects also play a role but remain poorly defined. We report here that mice living in an enriched housing environment show reduced tumor growth and increased remission. We found this effect in melanoma and colon cancer models, and that it was not caused by physical activity alone.(More)
The WRKY-type transcription factors are involved in plant development and stress responses, but how the regulation of stress tolerance is related to plant development is largely unknown. GsWRKY20 was initially identified as a stress response gene using large-scale Glycine soja microarrays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the(More)
Several previous studies utilizing selective pharmacological antagonists have demonstrated that type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of numerous disorders of the central nervous system, but the role of mGluR5 activation in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not fully understood. Here in an in(More)
Living in an enriched environment with complex physical and social stimulation leads to improved cognitive and metabolic health. In white fat, enrichment induced the upregulation of the brown fat cell fate determining gene Prdm16, brown fat-specific markers, and genes involved in thermogenesis and β-adrenergic signaling. Moreover, pockets of cells with(More)
BACKGROUND Invasion growth is the most characteristic biological phenotype of glioblastoma, but the molecular mechanism in glioma cell invasion is poorly understood. Recent data have showed that microRNA plays an essential role in tumor invasion. Our study aimed to explore the mechanism of miR-7 involved in the control of glioblastoma cell invasion. (More)
The author developed a mobile, mixed-reality version of capture the flag, a popular genre of computer game. Our CTF game is novel in three ways. First, the smart phone is the main interface. Using the smart phone, players physically role-play virtual characters who try to capture enemy flags by traversing different landscapes. This approach creates a(More)
In 2006, China set a goal of measles elimination by 2012. To describe progress toward this goal, we reviewed relevant policies and strategies and analyzed national data for 2000-2009. In response to implementation of these strategies, including increased routine measles vaccination coverage and province-specific supplementary immunization activities (SIAs),(More)
In this letter, we present a novel product channel coding and decoding scheme for image transmission over noisy channels. Two convolutional codes with at least one recursive systematic convolutional code are employed to construct the product code. Received data are decoded alternately in two directions. A constrained Viterbi algorithm is proposed to exploit(More)
Published data on the association between Cyclin D1 (CCND1) G870A gene polymorphism and digestive tract cancers (DTC) are inconclusive. We carried out a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to derive a more precise estimation of the association. Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure up(More)