Leendert H. J. Looijenga

Learn More
Cancers arise owing to mutations in a subset of genes that confer growth advantage. The availability of the human genome sequence led us to propose that systematic resequencing of cancer genomes for mutations would lead to the discovery of many additional cancer genes. Here we report more than 1,000 somatic mutations found in 274 megabases (Mb) of DNA(More)
The germ-cell tumours are a fascinating group of neoplasms because of their unusual biology and the spectacular therapeutic results that have been obtained in these tumours. Traditionally, this group of neoplasms is presented in an organ-oriented approach. However, recent clinical and experimental data convincingly demonstrate that these neoplasms are one(More)
Several proteins, such as the placental/germ cell alkaline phosphatases (PLAPs), the stem cell factor receptor c-KIT, and the transcriptional regulator and marker of pluripotency OCT3/4, have been found in both normal immature and malignant germ cells, known as carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (CIS/ITGCNU). In the present(More)
Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1) is a conserved transcriptional regulator of male differentiation required for testicular development in vertebrates. Here, we show that in mice of the 129Sv strain, loss of Dmrt1 causes a high incidence of teratomas, whereas these tumors do not form in Dmrt1 mutant C57BL/6J mice. Conditional gene(More)
Human germ cell tumors (GCTs) may have variable histology and clinical behavior, depending on factors such as sex of the patient, age at clinical diagnosis, and anatomical site of the tumor. Some types of GCT, i.e., the seminomas/germinomas/dysgerminomas and embryonal carcinomas (the stem cell component of nonseminomas), have pluripotent potential, which is(More)
Germ cells, the embryonic precursors of sperm or oocytes, respond to molecular cues that regulate their sex-specific development in the fetal gonads. In males in particular, the balance between continued proliferation and cell fate commitment is crucial: defects in proliferation result in insufficient spermatogonial stem cells for fertility, but escape from(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed. RESULTS For testicular(More)
Testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) of adolescents and adults can be subdivided into seminomas (referred to as dysgerminomas of the ovary) and non-seminomas, all referred to as type II GCTs. They originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS), being the malignant counterparts of primordial germ cells (PGCs)/gonocytes. The invasive components mimic embryogenesis,(More)
BACKGROUND The NANOG gene, a member of the homeobox family of DNA binding transcription factors, was recently identified in a screen for pluripotency-promoting genes. NANOG overexpression in murine embryonic stem cells is sufficient to maintain self-renewal and to block differentiation. The NANOG gene is located on human chromosome 12p13, a region(More)
The risk for the development of germ cell tumors is an important factor to deal with in the management of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). However, this risk is often hard to predict. Recently, major progress has been made in identifying gene-products related to germ cell tumor development (testis-specific protein-Y encoded and octamer(More)