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BACKGROUND Rotavirus gastroenteritis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, is a vaccine-preventable disease. New safe and effective candidate rotavirus vaccines are needed to replace the withdrawn rhesus rotavirus-based oral vaccine. METHODS We evaluated a monovalent human rotavirus vaccine, serotype G1, strain RIX4414, for efficacy,(More)
Noroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. In a prospective study conducted in 2009-2010 at the Tampere University Hospital, 195 stool specimens were collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis in children and examined for noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses, using a reverse(More)
Norovirus (NoV) GII-4 has emerged as the predominant NoV genotype in outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. We determined clinical features of NoV GII-4 associated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in comparison with AGE associated with other NoV types in infants during seasons 2001 and 2002. During the prospective follow-up period, 128 primary infections of AGE(More)
Noroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children. We studied norovirus genotypes in faecal specimens collected from Finnish children followed-up prospectively in rotavirus vaccine trials. Almost 5000 faecal specimens collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined using(More)
The standard diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis is based on the demonstration of rotavirus antigen in stools using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In this study, a one-step quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR) was used for sensitive detection of rotavirus in diarrheal stools. The primers and TaqMan probe for the Q-PCR were selected from a highly conserved region of(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in outbreaks and in sporadic AGE in young children. Since the mid-1990s, NoV genotype GII.4 has been predominant worldwide. New GII.4 variants appear every two to three years, and antigenic variation is focused on the highly variable protruding domain (P2) of the NoV capsid(More)
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