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Questions: Does herbivores' diet per se affect their immunocompetence? Do other fitness measures vary accordingly? Can the observed differences be explained by the chemical composition of the diets? Organisms: Full-sib families of Parasemia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Methods: We reared larvae in laboratory on five different diets. We tested the(More)
The paradox of successful invading species is that they are likely to be genetically depauperate compared to their source population. This study on Colorado potato beetles is one of the few studies of the genetic consequences of continent-scale invasion in an insect pest. Understanding gene flow, population structure and the potential for rapid evolution in(More)
Aposematic herbivores are under selection pressure from their host plants and predators. Although many aposematic herbivores exploit plant toxins in their own secondary defense, dealing with these harmful compounds might underlay costs. We studied whether the allocation of energy to detoxification and/or sequestration of host plant defense chemicals trades(More)
The butterfly Bicyclus anynana exhibits phenotypic plasticity involving the wet-season phenotype, which possesses marginal eyespots on the ventral surface of the wings, and the dry-season form, which lacks these eyespots. We examined the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity of B. anynana in relation to the defence mechanisms of crypsis and deflection. We(More)
Müllerian mimicry, where unpalatable prey share common warning patterns, has long fascinated evolutionary biologists. It is commonly assumed that Müllerian mimics benefit by sharing the costs of predator education, thus reducing per capita mortality, although there has been no direct test of this assumption. Here, we specifically measure the selection(More)
Inexperienced predators are assumed to select for similarity of warning signals in aposematic species (Müllerian mimicry) when learning to avoid them. Recent theoretical work predicts that if co-mimic species have unequal defences, predators attack them according to their average unpalatability and mimicry may not be beneficial for the better defended(More)
Both Batesian and Müllerian mimicries are considered classical evidence of natural selection where predation pressure has, at times, created a striking similarity between unrelated prey species. Batesian mimicry, in which palatable mimics resemble unpalatable aposematic species, is parasitic and only beneficial to the mimics. By contrast, in classical(More)
The evolution of aposematism, a phenomenon where prey species conspicuously advertise their unprofitability to predators, is puzzling. How did conspicuousness evolve, if it simultaneously increased the likelihood of an inexperienced predator to detect the prey and presumably kill it? Antiapostatic selection, where rare prey is predated relatively more(More)
1. Aposematic animals advertise their defences to predators via warning signals that often are bright colours combined with black patterns. Predation is assumed to select for large pattern elements and conspicuousness of warning signals because this enhances avoidance learning of predators. However, conspicuousness of the colour pattern can vary among(More)
In the first clear mathematical treatment of natural selection, Müller proposed that a shared warning signal (mimicry) would benefit defended prey species by sharing out the per capita mortality incurred during predator education. Although mimicry is a mainstay of adaptationist thinking, there has been repeated debate on whether there is a mutualistic or a(More)