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INTRODUCTION the use of movement monitors (accelerometers) for measuring physical activity (PA) in intervention and population-based studies is becoming a standard methodology for the objective measurement of sedentary and active behaviors and for the validation of subjective PA self-reports. A vital step in PA measurement is the classification of daily(More)
There is evidence that stress and glucocorticoids alter drug self-administration and mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity in preclinical models. The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that glucocorticoids are associated with psychostimulant reinforcement and DA release in humans. In total, 16 healthy adults, ages 18-27 years, underwent(More)
PURPOSE The objective of this study is to assess the performance of existing wear/nonwear time classification algorithms for accelerometry data collected in the free-living environment using a wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer and a waist-worn uniaxial accelerometer in older adults. METHODS Twenty-nine adults age 76 to 96 yr wore wrist accelerometers for(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aims were to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in the hepatic drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, SLCO1B1) and efflux transporters multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2), bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11), and breast cancer-related protein (BCRP, ABCG2) on single-dose pravastatin(More)
OBJECTIVE Accelerometers are promising tools for characterizing physical activity (PA) patterns in free-living persons. To date, validation of energy expenditure (EE) predictions from accelerometers has been restricted to short laboratory or simulated free-living protocols. This study seeks to determine the capabilities of eight previously published(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Monitoring changes in total fat mass and abdominal adiposity are important in understanding the impact of different types of weight loss interventions on health risks. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in predicting fat mass changes during moderate weight loss. (More)
There is a large interindividual variability in dexmedetomidine dose requirements for sedation of patients in intensive care units (ICU). Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) mediates an important route of dexmedetomidine metabolism, and genetic variation in CYP2A6 affects the clearance of other substrate drugs. We examined whether CYP2A6 genotypes affect(More)
OBJECTIVE Concerns about the safety and efficacy of over-the-counter cold medications have led to a recent US Food and Drug Administration public health advisory against their use in children <2 years of age. Our goal was to examine caregiver understanding of the age indication of over-the-counter cold medication labels and identify factors, associated with(More)
The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical methodology to handle a large proportion of artifactual outliers in a population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. The motivating PK data were obtained from a population PK study to examine associations between PK parameters such as clearance of dexmedetomidine (DEX) and cytochrome P450 2A6 phenotypes. The(More)
Replication fidelity of RNA virus genomes is constrained by the opposing necessities of generating sufficient diversity for adaptation and maintaining genetic stability, but it is unclear how the largest viral RNA genomes have evolved and are maintained under these constraints. A coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural protein, nsp14, contains conserved active-site(More)