Leeann Christian

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Individuals with developmental disabilities are often unable to influence their social environment in traditional ways (i.e., vocal language) and frequently exhibit challenging behaviors (e.g., aggression and self-injury) because such behaviors were previously reinforced under similar conditions. While the area of positive reinforcement manding has been(More)
Mainstream psychiatry has all but ignored the clinical needs of persons with developmental disabilities. With some notable exceptions, individuals in this group have been served in the community by behaviorally oriented psychologists or relegated to long-term institutional care. However, effective interventions are available, beginning with a functional(More)
The gender of participants in articles published from 1991 through 2000 in eight journals relevant to mental retardation was determined. Overall, participants were used in 65% of the articles; gender was not reported in 26% of them. When gender was reported, 6%, 8%, and 60% of the investigators used females only, males only, and both sexes, respectively.(More)
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