Leeann Christian

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The literature on drug abuse by people with mental retardation, a real, but largely ignored problem, was reviewed. Topics addressed were (a) the prevalence of drug use, (b) the drug-related problems characteristically encountered by this population, (c) the special vulnerabilities of people with mental retardation, (d) the treatment programs used with (and(More)
The present survey determined women's participation in eight journals concerned with mental retardation and related topics. The number of female authors was recorded for all articles published in these journals from 1991 through 2000. The number of women on the editorial board each year, for each journal, also was tabulated. For all years and all journals,(More)
Mainstream psychiatry has all but ignored the clinical needs of persons with developmental disabilities. With some notable exceptions, individuals in this group have been served in the community by behaviorally oriented psychologists or relegated to long-term institutional care. However, effective interventions are available, beginning with a functional(More)
Previous studies have shown that ratio size influenced the development of tolerance under simple and multiple schedules, but not under progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. PR schedules share certain features with mixed-ratio (MR) schedules, and pilot data suggested that ratio size fails to modulate tolerance to cocaine or morphine under MR schedules. The(More)
Previous studies have surveyed a variety of service providers in school and institutional settings, and reported a pervasive lack of education and training with regard to the use of psychotropic medication in people with intellectual disability. Because an increasing number of people with intellectual disability are living in the community and since many of(More)
This study describes the use of self-management procedures, similar to those proposed by Lagomarcino, Hughes, and Rusch (1989), to improve the productivity of 2 women with mild mental retardation who worked in restaurants. Substantial improvements were observed as a function of treatment, and the procedures were deemed acceptable by the participants, their(More)
Individuals with developmental disabilities are often unable to influence their social environment in traditional ways (i.e., vocal language) and frequently exhibit challenging behaviors (e.g., aggression and self-injury) because such behaviors were previously reinforced under similar conditions. While the area of positive reinforcement manding has been(More)
This study examined the effects of progressive relaxation training on the disruptive behaviors of a boy with autism. Moreover, his overt relaxed behaviors before and after relaxation training were measured using the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (Poppen, 1988, Poppen, 1998). After the participant received training in progressive relaxation procedures a(More)
The gender of participants in articles published from 1991 through 2000 in eight journals relevant to mental retardation was determined. Overall, participants were used in 65% of the articles; gender was not reported in 26% of them. When gender was reported, 6%, 8%, and 60% of the investigators used females only, males only, and both sexes, respectively.(More)
The present survey determined whether articles describing attempts to alter behavior in people with mental retardation and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (a) reported whether or not participants were receiving medications, (b) evaluated drugs as independent variables, and (c) evaluated (or discussed) interactions between pharmacological and(More)