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Functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heteromultimers formed by NR1 and NR2 subunits. The M3 segment, as contributed by NR1, forms the core of the extracellular vestibule, including binding sites for channel blockers, and represents a critical molecular link between ligand binding and channel opening. Taking advantage of the substituted(More)
We reported previously that mast cell tryptase is a growth factor for dog tracheal smooth muscle cells. The goals of our current experiments were to determine if tryptase also is mitogenic in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells, to compare its strength as a growth factor with that of other mitogenic serine proteases, and to determine whether its(More)
In cells, biosynthetic machinery coordinates protein synthesis and folding to optimize efficiency and minimize off-pathway outcomes. However, it has been difficult to delineate experimentally the mechanisms responsible. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we studied cotranslational folding of the first nucleotide-binding domain from the cystic(More)
We previously reported that mast cell tryptase is a potent mitogen for cultured airway smooth-muscle cells, but the early intracellular signals mediating this response are not known. In many cells, proliferative effects are mediated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway involving Raf-1, MAP kinase kinases (MEKs), and extracellular(More)
Cell-free expression systems provide unique tools for understanding CFTR biogenesis because they reconstitute the cellular folding environment and are readily amenable to biochemical and pharmacological manipulation. The most common system for this purpose is rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), supplemented with either canine pancreatic microsomes or(More)
Transmembrane topology of polytopic membrane proteins (PMPs) is established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the ribosome Sec61-translocon complex (RTC) through iterative cycles of translocation initiation and termination. It remains unknown, however, whether tertiary folding of transmembrane domains begins after the nascent polypeptide integrates into(More)
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