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Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone(More)
We previously observed that (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) promoted internalization and phosphorylation of the FLAG-tagged human kappa opioid receptor (FLAG-hkor) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In this study, we compared regulation of the FLAG-hkor expressed in CHO cells by(More)
The agonist (-)(trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidiny)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide [(-)U50,488H] caused desensitization of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hkor) and Flag-tagged hkor (Flag-hkor) but not the rat kappa-opioid receptor (rkor) and Flag-tagged rkor (Flag-rkor) stably expressed in CHO cells as assessed by guanosine(More)
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 A118G) has been widely studied for its association in a variety of drug addiction and pain sensitivity phenotypes; however, the extent of these adaptations and the mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. To clarify the functional mechanisms linking the OPRM1(More)
The mu opioid receptor (MOR) in the rat and mouse caudate putamen (CPu) and thalamus was demonstrated as diffuse and broad bands by Western blot with a polyclonal antibody against a C-terminal peptide of MOR, which were absent in the cerebellum and brains of MOR-knockout mice. The electrophoretic mobility of MOR differed in the two brain regions with median(More)
Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used and highly effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. As the therapeutic use of MPH has increased, so has its abuse and illicit street-use. Yet, the mechanisms associated with development of MPH-associated abuse and dependence are not well understood(More)
Dynorphins, endogenous peptides for the kappa opioid receptor, play important roles in many physiological and pathological functions. Here, we examined how prolonged treatment with three major prodynorphin peptides, dynorphin A (1-17) (Dyn A), dynorphin B (1-13) (Dyn B) and alpha-neoendorphin (alpha-Neo), regulated the human kappa opioid receptor (hKOR)(More)
We investigated whether acute treatment with agonists affected the subcellular distribution of kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) in the dorsal horn of the rat lumbar spinal cord by using immunoelectron microscopy. Rats were injected intrathecally (i.t.) with U50,488H (100 nmole), dynorphin A(1-17) (15 nmole), or vehicle. The doses chosen have been shown to(More)
κ-Opioid receptor (KOR) agonists do not activate the reward pathway stimulated by morphine-like μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists and thus have been considered to be promising nonaddictive analgesics. However, KOR agonists produce other adverse effects, including dysphoria, diuresis, and constipation. The therapeutic promise of KOR agonists has nonetheless(More)