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Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone(More)
We previously observed that (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) promoted internalization and phosphorylation of the FLAG-tagged human kappa opioid receptor (FLAG-hkor) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In this study, we compared regulation of the FLAG-hkor expressed in CHO cells by(More)
In recent years it has become apparent that sex is a major factor involved in modulating the pharmacological effects of exogenous opioids. The kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) system is a potential therapeutic target for pain, mood disorders and addiction. In humans mixed KOPR/MOPR ligands have been found to produce greater analgesia in women than men. In(More)
The agonist (-)(trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidiny)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide [(-)U50,488H] caused desensitization of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hkor) and Flag-tagged hkor (Flag-hkor) but not the rat kappa-opioid receptor (rkor) and Flag-tagged rkor (Flag-rkor) stably expressed in CHO cells as assessed by guanosine(More)
The mu opioid receptor (MOR) in the rat and mouse caudate putamen (CPu) and thalamus was demonstrated as diffuse and broad bands by Western blot with a polyclonal antibody against a C-terminal peptide of MOR, which were absent in the cerebellum and brains of MOR-knockout mice. The electrophoretic mobility of MOR differed in the two brain regions with median(More)
Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used and highly effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. As the therapeutic use of MPH has increased, so has its abuse and illicit street-use. Yet, the mechanisms associated with development of MPH-associated abuse and dependence are not well understood(More)
Dynorphins, endogenous peptides for the kappa opioid receptor, play important roles in many physiological and pathological functions. Here, we examined how prolonged treatment with three major prodynorphin peptides, dynorphin A (1-17) (Dyn A), dynorphin B (1-13) (Dyn B) and alpha-neoendorphin (alpha-Neo), regulated the human kappa opioid receptor (hKOR)(More)
We investigated whether acute treatment with agonists affected the subcellular distribution of kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) in the dorsal horn of the rat lumbar spinal cord by using immunoelectron microscopy. Rats were injected intrathecally (i.t.) with U50,488H (100 nmole), dynorphin A(1-17) (15 nmole), or vehicle. The doses chosen have been shown to(More)
We examined whether sex differences in κ-opioid receptor (KOPR) pharmacology exist in guinea pigs, which are more similar to humans in the expression level and distribution of KOPR in the brain than rats and mice. The KOPR agonist trans-(±)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]-cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50,488H) produced a(More)