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Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their(More)
The goal was to identify formulations for use in valinomycin K(+) ion-selective electrodes that could routinely achieve a detection limit of <10(-6) M, even after repeated use and exposure at higher K+ activity (0.1 M) and without the requirement for special pretreatment or conditioning in low K+ activity (10(-3) M). Electrodes that would be characterized(More)
A new approach for the development of a highly sensitive aluminium(III) ion sensor via the preconcentration of aluminium(III) ion with a self-assembled monolayer on a gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode and current mediation by potassium ferricyanide redox behavior during aluminium(III) ion binding has been attempted. A monolayer of(More)
The ion-transport behaviour of methacrylic-acrylic-based polymers for ion-selective electrode (ISE) membranes was investigated by a spectrophotometric method to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient. By observing the degree of deprotonation of the chromoionophore or chromogenic ionophore, the extent of penetration of cations into the polymer films(More)
An optical biosensor consisting of a chromoionophore (ETH5294) (CM) doped sol-gel film interfaced with another sol-gel film immobilized with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was employed to detect the insecticide dichlorvos. The main advantage of this optical biosensor is the use of a sol-gel layer with immobilized CM that possesses lipophilic property. The(More)
BACKGROUND Due to the increasing industrial use of titanium compounds, its determination is the subject of considerable efforts. The ionophore or membrane active recognition is the most important component of any polymeric membrane sensor. The sensor's response depends on the ionophore and bonding between the ionophore and the target ion. Ionophores with(More)
An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gel films. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of any chemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitored at 550 nm, i.e. the(More)
An optical biosensor based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) immobilized in a chitosan film for the determination of ammonium in water samples is described. The biosensor film was deposited on a glass slide via a spin-coating method. The ammonium was measured based on beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation in the presence of(More)
A novel nano-bio composite polypyrrole (PPy)/kappa-carrageenan(KC) was fabricated and characterized for application as a cathode catalyst in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). High resolution SEM and TEM verified the bud-like shape and uniform distribution of the PPy in the KC matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has approved the amorphous structure of the PPy/KC as(More)