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Developing countries are required to produce robust estimates of forest carbon stocks for successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies related to reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Here we present a "benchmark" map of biomass carbon stocks over 2.5 billion ha of forests on three continents, encompassing all(More)
The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that old-growth forests have increased in carbon storage over recent decades,(More)
The Raven-II is a platform for collaborative research on advances in surgical robotics. Seven universities have begun research using this platform. The Raven-II system has two 3-DOF spherical positioning mechanisms capable of attaching interchangeable four DOF instruments. The Raven-II software is based on open standards such as Linux and ROS to maximally(More)
With the growing complexity of computer-based systems, their graphical user interfaces have also become more complex. Accordingly, the test and analysis process becomes more tedious and costly. This paper introduces a holistic view of fault modelling that is carried out as a complementary step to system modelling, enabling a scalability of the test process,(More)
BACKGROUND Laparoscopic psychomotor skills are challenging to learn and objectively evaluate. The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS) program provides a popular, inexpensive, widely-studied, and reported method for evaluating basic laparoscopic skills. With an emphasis on training safety before efficiency, we present data that explore the metrics in(More)
BACKGROUND Preoperative simulation warm-up has been shown to improve performance and reduce errors in novice and experienced surgeons, yet existing studies have only investigated conventional laparoscopy. We hypothesized that a brief virtual reality (VR) robotic warm-up would enhance robotic task performance and reduce errors. STUDY DESIGN In a 2-center(More)
BACKGROUND Validated methods of objective assessments of surgical skills are resource intensive. We sought to test a web-based grading tool using crowdsourcing called Crowd-Sourced Assessment of Technical Skill. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional Review Board approval was granted to test the accuracy of Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk and Facebook(More)
PURPOSE Rapid adoption of robot-assisted surgery has outpaced our ability to train novice roboticists. Objective metrics are required to adequately assess robotic surgical skills and yet surrogates for proficiency, such as economy of motion and tool path metrics, are not readily accessible directly from the da Vinci® robot system. The trakSTAR™ Tool Tip(More)