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The brain remains one of the most important but least understood tissues in our body, in part because of its complexity as well as the limitations associated with in vivo studies. Although simpler tissues have yielded to the emerging tools for in vitro 3D tissue cultures, functional brain-like tissues have not. We report the construction of complex(More)
OBJECTIVE Although there is growing awareness of the long-term cognitive effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI; eg, sports concussions), whether repeated concussions cause long-term cognitive deficits remains controversial. Moreover, whether cognitive deficits depend on increased amyloid β deposition and tau phosphorylation or are(More)
Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a(More)
Silk solvent casting, electrospinning, and electrogelation techniques were used to create a biodegradable, biocompatible silk fibroin dural substitute. The all-silk system was designed and produced to improve on currently available materials, grafts and tissue sealants used for dural closure in neurosurgery. The silk biomaterial was successfully fabricated(More)
A route toward mechanically robust, rapidly actuating, and biologically functionalized polymeric actuators using macroporous soft materials is described. The materials were prepared by combining silk protein and a synthetic polymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIAPPm)) to form interpenetrating network materials and macroporous structures by freeze-drying,(More)
Neural engineering provides promise for cell therapy by integrating the host brain with brain-machine-interface technologies in order to externally modulate functions. Long-term interfaces with the host brain remain a critical challenge due to insufficient graft cell survivability and loss of brain electrode sensitivity over time. Here, integrated(More)
Stimuli-responsive materials enabling the behavior of the cells that reside within them to be controlled are vital for the development of instructive tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering. Herein, we describe the preparation of conductive silk foam-based bone tissue scaffolds that enable the electrical stimulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs)(More)
The alignment and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs on patterned silk films (PF) is investigated as a bottom-up approach toward engineering bone lamellae. Screening PF with various groove dimensions shows that cell alignment is mediated by both the pattern width and depth. MSCs are differentiated in osteogenic medium for four weeks on flat films and on the(More)
Nerve conduits are a proven strategy for guiding axon regrowth following injury. This study compares degradable silk-trehalose films containing chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and/or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) loaded within a silk fibroin-based nerve conduit in a rat sciatic nerve defect model. Four groups of silk conduits were prepared,(More)
Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of an electroresponsive aqueous silk protein polymer as a smart mechanical damping fluid. The aqueous polymer solution is liquid under ambient conditions, but is reversibly converted into a gel once subjected to an electric current, thereby increasing or decreasing in viscosity. This nontoxic, biodegradable, reversible,(More)