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Cooperation between individuals requires the ability to infer each other's mental states to form shared expectations over mutual gains and make cooperative choices that realize these gains. From evidence that the ability for mental state attribution involves the use of prefrontal cortex, we hypothesize that this area is involved in integrating(More)
Little is known about the effect of obesity on brain structures and cognition in healthy older adults. This study examined the association between body mass index (BMI), regional volume differences in gray and white matter measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cognitive functioning in older females. Participants included 95 community-dwelling(More)
While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite(More)
Caffeine ingestion results in increased brain cell metabolism (Nehlig et al. [1992] Brain Res Brain Res Rev 17:139-170) and decreased cerebral blood flow (Field et al. [2003] Radiology 227:129-135; Mulderink et al. [2002] Neuroimage 15:37-44). The current study investigated the effect of caffeine in a word stem completion task using only novel word stems(More)
Peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity are found in the mucosal surfaces at many sites in the body, including the airway, the oral cavity, and the digestive tract. Based on their in vitro antimicrobial and other immunomodulatory activities, these host defense peptides have been proposed to play an important role in the innate defense against(More)
The present study used quantitative volume estimates of the hippocampus based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict memory performance of individuals with epilepsy of temporal lobe origin (TLE). Twenty individuals with TLE completed standardized neuropsychological tests and a quality of life inventory, and participated in a brain MRI(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the cortical mechanisms contributing to the acquisition and performance of a complex, bimanual motor sequence. To that aim, five subjects were trained on a difficult, asymmetrical finger opposition task. Their performance rate almost doubled in the course of training and approached the performance(More)
Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys, and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive(More)
With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the(More)
Previous lesion studies have shown compromised complex object discrimination in rats, monkeys, and human patients with damage to the perirhinal cortical region (PRC) of the medial temporal lobe. These findings support the notion that the PRC is involved in object discrimination when pairs of objects have a high degree of overlapping features but not when(More)