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Priming negative stereotypes of African Americans can bias perceptions toward novel Black targets, but less is known about how these perceptions ultimately arise. Examining how neural regions involved in arousal, inhibition and control covary when negative stereotypes are activated can provide insight into whether individuals attempt to downregulate biases.(More)
Sixteen participants viewed a videotaped tour of 4 houses that highlighted a series of objects and their spatial locations. Participants were tested for memory of object, spatial, and temporal-order information while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Preferential activation was observed in the right parahippocampal gyrus during the retrieval(More)
Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1,(More)
Evidence from multiple paradigms has converged on the finding that stimulus repetition most often results in decreases in neural activity. The mechanisms of these decreases, however, are not yet well understood. The current study attempted to determine, through the use of masked word repetition priming, whether decreases in activity levels occur in response(More)
While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine whether priming can occur due to recent perceptual processing of the same stimulus with minimal influence from conceptual process and also to investigate its underlying neural mechanisms using fMRI. Words were presented in mirror orientation in a word identification priming task. The presentation durations of the(More)
Caffeine ingestion results in increased brain cell metabolism (Nehlig et al. [1992] Brain Res Brain Res Rev 17:139-170) and decreased cerebral blood flow (Field et al. [2003] Radiology 227:129-135; Mulderink et al. [2002] Neuroimage 15:37-44). The current study investigated the effect of caffeine in a word stem completion task using only novel word stems(More)
Since Freud, clinicians have understood that disturbing memories contribute to psychopathology and that new emotional experiences contribute to therapeutic change. Yet, controversy remains about what is truly essential to bring about psychotherapeutic change. Mounting evidence from empirical studies suggests that emotional arousal is a key ingredient in(More)
Little is known about the effect of obesity on brain structures and cognition in healthy older adults. This study examined the association between body mass index (BMI), regional volume differences in gray and white matter measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cognitive functioning in older females. Participants included 95 community-dwelling(More)
Stressful events frequently comprise both neutral and emotionally arousing information, yet the impact of stress on emotional and neutral events is still not fully understood. The hippocampus and frontal cortex have dense concentrations of receptors for stress hormones, such as cortisol, which at high levels can impair performance on hippocampally dependent(More)