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The ventrolateral portion of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) is one brain region in which ligands of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) produce analgesia. In the PAG, MOR ligands are thought to act primarily on inhibitory [e.g., gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic)] neurons to disinhibit PAG output rather than directly on medullary-projecting PAG neurons. In(More)
Glucose-responsive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) are stimulated when glucose increases from 5 to 20 mmol/l and are thought to play an essential role in regulating metabolism. The present studies examined the role of glucose metabolism in the mechanism by which glucose-responsive neurons sense glucose. The pancreatic, but not hepatic, form(More)
Expression and estrogen regulation of the genes for nitric-oxide (NO)-synthesizing enzymes (NO synthase, NOS) were investigated by in situ hybridization. This study focused on regions of the hypothalamus that contain estrogen receptors and regulate specific neuroendocrine functions related to female sexual behavior and food intake, among others.(More)
The membrane actions of estrogens can facilitate their genomic actions. To determine whether this facilitation bears on CNS mechanisms for estrogen-dependent behaviors, ovariectomized rats were subjected to a two-pulse treatment of estrogen directly in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Two days later, each rat was given progesterone and then tested for(More)
To investigate paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal actions responsible for the effects of neurotransmitters on feeding, and to test the notion that a single population of cells there could account for feeding effects, hypothalamic slices containing the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were prepared from rats. Electrophysiological responses of individual PVN(More)
Regulated gene expression in single neurons can be linked to biophysical events and behavior in the case of estrogen-regulated gene expression in neurons in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus. These cells are essential for lordosis behavior. What genes are coexpressed in neurons that have high levels of mRNAs for(More)
Reverse engineering takes the facts we know about a device or a process and reasons backwards to infer the principles underlying the structure-function relations. The goal of this review is to apply this approach to a well-studied hormone-controlled behavior, namely the reproductive stance of female rodents, lordosis. We first provide a brief overview on(More)
Estrogens act within the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) to facilitate lordosis behavior. Estradiol treatment in vivo induces alpha(1b)-adrenoreceptor mRNA and increases the density of alpha(1B)-adrenoreceptor binding in the hypothalamus. Activation of hypothalamic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors also facilitates estrogen-dependent lordosis. To(More)
Bath application of sulfated or non-sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8s or CCK-8ns, respectively) at concentrations of 25 to 250 nM stimulated the firing activity of 40 to 80% of neurons recorded from the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in hypothalamic slices maintained in vitro. On the basis of molarity or the percentages of neurons affected, CCK-8s(More)
Neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus mediate some counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia and 2-deoxyglucose, but the mechanisms that mediate these responses to glucose are unclear. In the present study, ventromedial hypothalamus neurons were identified on the basis of their inhibition by the transition from 5 to 20 mmol/l glucose. Tolbutamide,(More)