Lee-Ming Kow

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Neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus mediate some counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia and 2-deoxyglucose, but the mechanisms that mediate these responses to glucose are unclear. In the present study, ventromedial hypothalamus neurons were identified on the basis of their inhibition by the transition from 5 to 20 mmol/l glucose. Tolbutamide,(More)
A concept of generalized arousal of the CNS is presented and given an operational definition that leads to quantitative physical measures. Because this primitive arousal function underlies all motivated behavioral responses, cognitive functions, and emotional expression, disorders of generalized arousal can be associated with a large number of problems in(More)
The membrane actions of estrogens can facilitate their genomic actions. To determine whether this facilitation bears on CNS mechanisms for estrogen-dependent behaviors, ovariectomized rats were subjected to a two-pulse treatment of estrogen directly in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Two days later, each rat was given progesterone and then tested for(More)
A fundamental capacity of the mammalian CNS is becoming amenable to study with the techniques of functional genomics. Emphasized in this review are ascending connections from the medullary reticular formation and descending connections from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In particular, sex hormone effects on neurons allow us to relate(More)
We have theorized that large neurons in the ventral and medial reticular formation of the medulla are critical for both autonomic and cortical arousal. To test this theory, we anesthetized rats with urethane, lowered concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes into the medullary reticular formation, and implanted electroencephalogram (EEG) and ECG recording(More)
A survey of nearly two hundred reports shows that rapid estrogenic actions can be detected across a range of kinds of estrogens, a range of doses, on a wide range of tissue, cell and ion channel types. Striking is the fact that preparations of estrogenic agents that do not permeate the cell membrane almost always mimic the actions of the estrogenic agents(More)
A wealth of neuropharmacological data demonstrates that oxytocin (OT) actions in the mammalian forebrain support a wide variety of affiliative behaviors and repress aggressive behaviors. Based on that literature, it was expected that reproductive and affiliative behaviors would be vastly decreased and aggression markedly increased in OT gene knockout (OTKO)(More)
PURPOSE The initiation of genital tactile stimulation is regarded as a precursor to sexual arousal and perhaps in women it is the most easily recognized initiator of central nervous system arousal. Unfortunately little published material details the specific mechanisms preceding arousal, beginning at the epithelial level, which are the sensory precursors to(More)
Research suggests a causal link between estrogens and mood. Here, we began by examining the effects of estradiol (E2 ) on rat innate and conditioned defensive behaviors in response to cat odor. Second, we utilized whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological techniques to assess noradrenergic effects on neurons within the dorsal premammillary nucleus of the(More)
Histamine is capable of modulating CNS arousal states by regulating neuronal excitability. In the current study, histamine action in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), its related ionic mechanisms, and its possible facilitation by estrogen were investigated using whole cell patch-clamp recording in brain slices from ovariectomized female mice. Under(More)