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This study followed 18 children with developmental disabilities, whose chronological ages were between 3 years and 6 years at the start of the study, over a 2-year period. At initial observation, children communicated primarily through prelinguistic gestures, vocalizations, and single-word utterances. Children's language skills were measured every 6 months(More)
The forms and functions of expressive communication produced by 84 individuals with severe mental retardation were assessed, using a structured communication sampling procedure. Symbolic communication acts were produced by 39 participants, and 27 of these symbolic communicators produced one or more multiword/multisymbol utterances. Of the remaining(More)
Sixty-eight participants with severe mental retardation participated in a study of representational matching to sample. Participants were asked to match objects to identical objects, line drawings, miniature objects (icons), pantomimes, and spoken names. Participants who were successful in these matching tasks also experienced delayed matching tasks.(More)
A structured communication sampling procedure was used to measure the form and function characteristics of intentional communication acts produced by nonverbal adults with severe mental retardation. Four "contact" subjects (who communicated only with contact gestures) and 4 "distal" subjects (who used distal as well as contact gestures) participated in this(More)
Eight adults with developmental disabilities and four typically developing preschool children participated in an experiment studying emergent stimulus-stimulus relations after match-to-sample instruction. Participants were taught to match lexigrams (arbitrary graphic stimuli) to objects. Each object was functionally related to another object in the teaching(More)
This study assessed the communication initiation and repair behaviors of 28 individuals with severe to profound mental retardation in a variety of experimental conditions. All of these individuals communicated through nonsymbolic gestures. The experimental procedures were devised to simulate the conditions that typically evoke two different types of(More)
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