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We tested the hypothesis that synaptic defects in the hippocampus of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. Three postmortem groups were studied: controls with normal and stable cognition; cognitively intact subjects with senile plaque densities diagnostic for possible AD (p-AD) and neurofibrillary(More)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that Dnmts can mediate neuronal cell death. Enforced expression of Dnmt3a(More)
The pathogenesis of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown, but defects in synaptosomal high-affinity glutamate transport have been observed. In experimental models, chronic loss of glutamate transport can produce a loss of motor neurons and, therefore, could contribute to the disease. With the recent cloning of three glutamate(More)
We tested whether regional or selective alterations in presynaptic proteins occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with tests of cognitive function. We measured the levels of seven presynaptic proteins (synaptobrevin, synaptotagmin, SNAP-25, syntaxin, SV2, Rab3a, and synapsin I) by immunoblotting in postmortem tissue from four brain regions(More)
The cellular and subcellular distributions of the glutamate transporter subtypes EAAC1, GLT-1, and GLAST in the rat CNS were demonstrated using anti-peptide antibodies that recognize the C-terminal domains of each transporter. On immunoblots, the antibodies specifically recognize proteins of 65-73 kDa in total brain homogenates. Immunocytochemistry shows(More)
TDP-43 proteinopathy, initially associated with ALS and FTD, is also found in 30–60% of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases and correlates with worsened cognition and neurodegeneration. A major component of this proteinopathy is depletion of this RNA-binding protein from the nucleus, which compromises repression of non-conserved cryptic exons in(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic degenerative neurologic disorder characterized by the death of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. Recent studies have suggested that the metabolism of glutamate, a potentially neurotoxic amino acid, is abnormal in patients with ALS. We hypothesized that the high-affinity(More)
In the brains of aged humans and cases of Alzheimer disease, deposits of amyloid in senile plaques are located in proximity to nerve processes. The principal component of this extracellular amyloid is beta/A4, a peptide derived from a larger amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is actively expressed in brain and systemic organs. Mechanisms that result in(More)
  • Lee J Martin
  • Journal of neuropathology and experimental…
  • 2008
DNA damage is a form of cell stress and injury that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurologic disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Down syndrome, Parkinson disease, cerebral ischemia, and head trauma. However, most data reveal only associations, and the role for DNA damage in direct mechanisms of(More)
This study focuses on the morphometric changes of neurons in asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), a state characterized by the presence of AD lesions in subjects without cognitive impairment. In autopsy brains, we used stereological methods to compare the cell body and nuclear volumes of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and CA1 hippocampal neurons in(More)