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Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of(More)
Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but the underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity-susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and ~2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals, with targeted follow-up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed(More)
Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of(More)
Blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To dissect the polygenic basis of these traits, we conducted genome-wide association screens in 19,840 individuals and replication in up to 20,623 individuals. We identified 30 distinct loci(More)
Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167(More)
Galanin-like immunoreactivity (Gal-LI), as determined by radioimmunoassay, was detectable in the brain and gastrointestinal tract by day 15 of gestation. Concentrations of Gal-LI increased after birth in the hypothalamus but decreased in the stomach and duodenum. A sex difference in Gal-LI concentrations appeared during puberty in the median eminence,(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have achieved great success identifying common genetic variants associated with common human diseases. However, to date, the massive amounts of data generated from GWAS have not been maximally leveraged and integrated with other types of data to identify associations beyond those associations that meet the stringent(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated the ability to identify the strongest causal common variants in complex human diseases. However, to date, the massive data generated from GWAS have not been maximally explored to identify true associations that fail to meet the stringent level of association required to achieve genome-wide(More)
MOTIVATION The identification of condition specific sub-networks from gene expression profiles has important biological applications, ranging from the selection of disease-related biomarkers to the discovery of pathway alterations across different phenotypes. Although many methods exist for extracting these sub-networks, very few existing approaches(More)
We have isolated and characterized cDNAs encoding rat galanin from a cDNA library prepared from rat hypothalamic tissue. Analysis of these clones reveals that rat galanin is synthesized initially as part of a 124-amino acid precursor that includes a signal peptide, galanin (29 amino acids), and a 60-amino acid galanin mRNA-associated peptide. In the(More)