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OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency and costs of medical services for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a managed care setting. METHODS Individual utilization records of medical and pharmacy services for OA and RA patients were obtained from a group-model health maintenance organization (HMO). Estimates were made for costs(More)
We compared the incidence of breast cancer in 3033 women who had taken diethylstilbestrol (DES) in pregnancy during the period from 1940 to 1960 with the incidence in a comparable group of unexposed parous women. We ascertained vital status in 95 per cent of the exposed women and in 93 per cent of the unexposed women and received completed questionnaires(More)
Clozapine (Clozaril), a tricyclic dibenzodiazepine, causes fewer extrapyramidal side effects than do other antipsychotic drugs. Because it can induce agranulocytosis, however, clozapine is indicated only for schizophrenia that is not responsive to other therapies. To describe the drug's effects on mortality, we compared rates of various causes of death in(More)
The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)--incidence, prevalence, and mortality--and identify trends in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. A structured literature search was performed (January 2000 to(More)
OBJECTIVE Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) reversibly reduces bone mineral density. To estimate the extent to which DMPA might increase fracture risk, we undertook a retrospective cohort study of fractures in DMPA users and users of non-DMPA contraceptives, using the General Practice Research Database. METHODS Eligible women were aged younger than(More)
The purpose of this study was to describe the cost of health care and the patterns of treatment of young patients (under 65 years of age) identified in health insurance claims as having received services for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We screened computerized claims from a US indemnity and managed care organization for out-patient and(More)
PURPOSE Serious, although rare, ventricular arrhythmias and deaths have been reported in patients taking cisapride monohydrate. Without quantification of the risk involved, it is impossible to develop rational therapeutic guidelines. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Arrhythmic events (sudden deaths and other events compatible with serious ventricular arrhythmias)(More)
BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal side effects are commonly associated with opioid treatment for pain. AIM To understand gastrointestinal side effects associated with opioid treatment. METHODS This study was a population-based survey of adults in the US who use opioids to manage pain unrelated to cancer. Participants were recruited from an existing(More)
BACKGROUND Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with an elevated risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but published reports have lacked information on rates of outpatient disease, have concentrated on the elderly, and have not provided comparisons of rates for specific types of NSAIDs. METHODS We compared(More)
We used automated health insurance claims records of a New England insurer to assess the relation between salmeterol and severe nonfatal asthma. We identified 61,712 members who received a beta-agonist from January 1, 1993 to August 31, 1995, including 2, 708 recipients of salmeterol. Compared with recipients of other beta-agonists, future salmeterol(More)