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Following infection with influenza virus, animals display decreased locomotor activity and feeding behavior and loss of body weight. It has been suggested that these effects may be mediated by cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), induced by the infection. To assess the potential role of(More)
Implanted intraocular microelectrode arrays are being used to provide sight to individuals who are blind due to photoreceptor degeneration. It is envisioned that this retinal prosthesis will create the illusion of motion by stimulating focal areas of the retina in a sequential fashion through neighboring electrodes, much like the rapid succession of still(More)
The development of high-resolution retinal prostheses fabricated from silicon wafers presents an interesting problem: how to electrically bridge the space between the flat silicon wafer and the curved retinal surface. One potential "bridge" is a microwire glass electrode. In this paper we present our results in evaluating microwire glass electrodes. We(More)
An important factor in effective stimulation of the retina is close contact with the retina. The design of the electrode surface and the placement of the electrode against the retina both affect the degree of contact with the retina. We have addressed the design factor by creating a curved surface 3200-electrode array. The placement factor we have addressed(More)
We compared response patterns and electrical receptive fields (ERF) of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during epiretinal and subretinal electrical stimulation of isolated mouse retina. Retinas were stimulated with an array of 3200 independently controllable electrodes. Four response patterns were observed: a burst of activity immediately after stimulation(More)
Optical imaging, such as transmission imaging, is used to study brain tissue injury. Transmission imaging detects cellular swelling via an increase in light transmitted by tissue slices due to a decrease in scattering particle concentration. Transmission imaging cannot distinguish sub-cellular particle size changes from cellular swelling or shrinkage. We(More)
Mitochondrial swelling is observed in neuronal injury and is a key event in many pathways to cell death. Currently, there is no technique for directly measuring mitochondrial size changes within living tissue slices with a field of view of several millimeters. In this paper, we test our hypothesis that Mie light-scatter theory can be used to study(More)