Lee Jason Hopkins

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PrPSc [abnormal disease-specific conformation of PrP (prion-related protein)] accumulates in prion-affected individuals in the form of amorphous aggregates. Limited proteolysis of PrPSc results in a protease-resistant core of PrPSc of molecular mass of 27-30 kDa (PrP27-30). Aggregated forms of PrP co-purify with prion infectivity, although infectivity does(More)
The agent responsible for prion disease may exist in different forms, commonly referred to as strains, with each carrying the specific information that determines its own distinct biological properties, such as incubation period and lesion profile. Biological strain typing of ovine scrapie isolates by serial passage in conventional mice has shown some(More)
The nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing family caspase recruitment domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome can be activated by pathogenic bacteria via products translocated through the microbial type III secretion apparatus (T3SS). Recent work has shown that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is downregulated by autophagy, but the(More)
Pathogen recognition by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) results in the formation of a macromolecular protein complex (inflammasome) that drives protective inflammatory responses in the host. It is thought that the number of inflammasome complexes forming in a cell is determined by the number of NLRs being activated, with each(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) detect pathogens and danger-associated signals within the cell. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen, activates caspase-1 required for the processing of the proinflammatory cytokines, pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18, and pyroptosis. In this study, we show that Salmonella(More)
Allergic responses can be triggered by structurally diverse allergens. Most allergens are proteins, yet extensive research has not revealed how they initiate the allergic response and why the myriad of other inhaled proteins do not. Among these allergens, the cat secretoglobulin protein Fel d 1 is a major allergen and is responsible for severe allergic(More)
Bacterial infection can trigger autophagy and inflammasome activation, but the effects of inflammasome activation on autophagy are unknown. We examined this in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa macrophage infection, which triggers NLRC4 inflammasome activation. P. aeruginosa induced autophagy via TLR4 and its adaptor TRIF. NLRC4 and caspase-1 activation(More)
Susceptibility to scrapie disease in sheep, the archetypal prion disease, correlates with polymorphisms within the ovine PrP (prion-related protein) gene. The VRQ (Val136Arg154Gln171) and AL141RQ (Ala136Leu141Arg154Gln171) allelic variants are associated with classical scrapie, whereas the ARR (Ala136Arg154Arg171), AF141RQ (Ala136Phe141Arg154Gln171) and AHQ(More)
TLR2 recognises bacterial lipopeptides and lipoteichoic acid, and forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6. TLR2 is relatively well characterised in mice and humans, with published crystal structures of human TLR2/1/Pam3CSK4 and murine TLR2/6/Pam2CSK4. Equine TLR4 is activated by a different panel of ligands to human and murine TLR4, but less is known about(More)
A more complete assessment of ovine prion strain diversity will be achieved by complementing biological strain typing in conventional and ovine PrP transgenic mice with a biochemical analysis of the resultant PrPSc. This will provide a correlation between ovine prion strain phenotype and the molecular nature of different PrP conformers associated with(More)