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We have adopted an analysis that produces a post hoc prediction of the time course of electromyogram (EMG) activity from the discharge of ensembles of neurons recorded sequentially from the primary motor cortex (M1) of a monkey. Over several recording sessions, we collected data from 50 M1 neurons and several distal forelimb muscles during a stereotyped(More)
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) use signals recorded directly from the brain to control an external device, such as a computer cursor or a prosthetic limb. These control signals have been recorded from different levels of the brain, from field potentials at the scalp or cortical surface to single neuron action potentials. At present, the more invasive(More)
1. We recorded from 239 neurons located in the magnocellular division of the red nucleus of four alert macaque monkeys. At the same time, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) signals from as many as twenty electrodes chronically implanted on muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand. We recorded EMG signals for periods ranging from several months to a(More)
The recent explosion of interest in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has spurred research into choosing the optimal input signal source for a desired application. The signals with highest bandwidth--single neuron action potentials or spikes--typically are difficult to record for more than a few years after implantation of intracortical electrodes.(More)
The loss of a limb or paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury has devastating consequences on quality of life. One approach to restoring lost sensory and motor abilities in amputees and patients with tetraplegia is to supply them with implants that provide a direct interface with the CNS. Such brain-machine interfaces might enable a patient to exert(More)
Plasticity is a crucial component of normal brain function and a critical mechanism for recovery from injury. In vitro, associative pairing of presynaptic spiking and stimulus-induced postsynaptic depolarization causes changes in the synaptic efficacy of the presynaptic neuron, when activated by extrinsic stimulation. In vivo, such paradigms can alter the(More)
As long as 150 years ago, when Fritz and Hitzig demonstrated the electrical excitability of the motor cortex, scientists and fiction writers were considering the possibility of interfacing a machine with the human brain. Modern attempts have been driven by concrete technological and clinical goals. The most advanced of these has brought the perception of(More)
Movement representation by the motor cortex (M1) has been a theoretical interest for many years, but in the past several years it has become a more practical question, with the advent of the brain-machine interface. An increasing number of groups have demonstrated the ability to predict a variety of kinematic signals on the basis of M1 recordings and to use(More)
Two monkeys were trained to point to targets and to retrieve fruit bits from a Kluver board, bottles, and tubes. Once proficient in the tasks, the macaques underwent aseptic surgical implantation of a recording chamber over the cerebellar nuclei on the side of their preferred hand. After recovery from surgery, a series of mapping penetrations were completed(More)
A central question in neuroscience is how interactions between neurons give rise to behavior. In many electrophysiological experiments, the activity of a set of neurons is recorded while sensory stimuli or movement tasks are varied. Tools that aim to reveal underlying interactions between neurons from such data can be extremely useful. Traditionally,(More)