Lee C. B. Crouse

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Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is an explosive chemical that has been detected in environmental media. Although previous toxicology studies have shown PETN to be relatively benign, a lack of available information concerning developmental and reproductive effects from oral PETN exposure was needed. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to oral daily adjusted(More)
Dinitrotoluene (DNT) is a nitroaromatic explosive used in propellant mixtures and in the production of plastics. Isomers of DNT were administered daily via oral gavage to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days to determine the subacute toxicity of individual isomers of DNT. The 3,5-DNT isomer was the most toxic isomer, inducing weight loss and mortality(More)
The U.S. Department of Defense is using the chemicals 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1, 2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in new munitions development. In a screen for biomarkers of exposure, these compounds were measured in urine and blood of male rhesus monkeys after oral doses. NTO peaked at 4 h, with urinary concentrations at least 100-fold higher than(More)
A random sample (n = 260) of the first 799 admissions to the Santa Clara County Methadone Treatment Program was sought for interview five years after the date of their first dose; 80% were successfully located. Data from the year prior to entering methadone treatment were compared to data from the year prior to the follow-up interview. The two specific(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for simulating the kinetics of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) in male rats was developed. The model consisted of five compartments interconnected by systemic circulation. The tissue uptake of RDX was described as a perfusion-limited process whereas hepatic clearance and gastrointestinal absorption(More)
Dinitrotoluene (DNT) is a nitroaromatic explosive that exists as six isomers; two major isomers (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) and four minor isomers (2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-DNT). DNT has been found in soil, surface water, and groundwater near ammunition production plants. The major isomers of DNT are classified as "likely to cause cancer in humans."In vitro studies(More)
Thiodiglycol (TG), a hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard (HD), is a potential contaminant of soil and water at certain military sites. To establish developmental toxicity criteria for TG, an oral developmental toxicity study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Neat thiodiglycol (99.9 %) was administered orally to mated female rats from gestation days(More)
3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is an energetic explosive proposed for use in weapon systems, to reduce the sensitivity of warheads. In order to develop toxicity data for safety assessment, we investigated the genotoxicity of NTO, using a battery of genotoxicity tests, which included the Ames test, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell chromosome aberration(More)
Sustainable use of training ranges requires the development of compounds that have a minimal impact on the environment when used in a weapon system. Triaminoguanidinium-1-methyl-5nitriminotetrazolate (TAG-MNT) is a novel, explosive, military compound of interest for application in some weapon systems. Little is known of its toxicologic properties. To ensure(More)
Nitrotriazolone (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO) is an insensitive munition that has demonstrated effects on reproductive organs in adult male rats. NTO was administered to male (0, 250, and 500milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day)) and female (0, 500, and 1000mg/kg-day) Sprague-Dawley rats (15/sex/group) via oral gavage from weaning through(More)